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1 of 22
"Effects of a three-tier strategic model of intensifying instruction using a research-based core reading program in grades k–3"
Author(s):Marchand-Martella, N. E., Martella, R. C., Kolts, R. L., Mitchell, D., & Mitchell, C.
Year:2006
Abstract:This study examined the effect of a three-tier strategic model of intensifying instruction with Reading Mastery Plus with students in kindergarten through grade three at a Title I school. Typically achieving students and students who received special education or Title I/Learning Assistance Program (LAP) services participated in this study. The Diagnostic Indicators of Basic Skills (DIBELS) was used as a pre- and posttest for grades K-2. Students in grade three were administered the Scholastic Reading Inventory (SRI) for their pre- and posttest measures. Additionally, teacher satisfaction with the program and its implementation was measured with a 10 question survey following the completion of the study. Results indicated statistically significant improvements in reading achievement across all grades. When comparing the differences between pretest to posttest results, students who had received special education or Title I/Learning Assistance Program (LAP) services recorded achievement gains equivalent to their typically achieving peers. All students recorded pretest to posttest improvements of more than half of a standard deviation on all subtests. Additionally, results indicated that there were few differences in the achievement between students who received Title I/LAP and special education services. Results from the teacher questionnaire reported teacher satisfaction with every aspect of the program.
Description of the Study:This study examined the effect of a three-tier strategic model of intensifying instruction with Reading Mastery Plus with students in kindergarten through grade three at a Title I school. Typically achieving students and students who received special education or Title I/Learning Assistance Program (LAP) services participated in this study. The Diagnostic Indicators of Basic Skills (DIBELS) was used as a pre- and posttest for grades K-2. Students in grade three were administered the Scholastic Reading Inventory (SRI) for their pre- and posttest measures. Additionally, teacher satisfaction with the program and its implementation was measured with a 10 question survey following the completion of the study.
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:Journal of Direct Instruction, 6(1), 49–72
Other Tags:Reading Mastery Plus, Diagnostic Indicators of Basic Skills (DIBELS), Scholastic Reading Inventory (SRI), teacher satisfaction, Title I, Learning Assistance Program (LAP), Corrective Reading, Spelling Mastery, nonsense word fluency, oral reading fluency
Affiliation:Eastern Washington University
Design Type:Pretest-Posttest Norm Comparison Design
Fidelity Data Reported:Yes
Location/Setting:Title I elementary school, Pacific Northwest, suburb, Washington State
Participants:Elementary students, kindergarten students, at-risk students, special education students, students with learning disabilities, general education students
Results:Results indicated statistically significant improvements in reading achievement across all grades. When comparing the differences between pretest to posttest results, students who had received special education or Title I/Learning Assistance Program (LAP) services recorded achievement gains equivalent to their typically achieving peers. All students recorded pretest to posttest improvements of more than half of a standard deviation on all subtests. Additionally, results indicated that there were few differences in the achievement between students who received Title I/LAP and special education services. Results from the teacher questionnaire reported teacher satisfaction with every aspect of the program.
Students Included:Elementary students, kindergarten students, at-risk students, special education students, students with learning disabilities, general education students
2 of 22
"Effectiveness of Visual Imagery Versus Rule-based Strategies in Teaching Spelling to Learning Disabled Students"
Author(s):Darch, Craig & Robert G. Simpson
Year:Fall 1990
Abstract:This article examines the effectiveness of two programs for teaching spelling to learning disabled children. The programs chosen were Spelling Mastery Program and a visual imagery program based on the one developed by Sears & Johnson (1986). The subjects for the study were 28 learning disabled students with a history of low academic achievement, from the rural southeast. Results indicated students in the Spelling Mastery Program significantly outgained students in the visual imagery program on each of the dependent variables. Additionally the study showed that utilizing explicit rule based strategies enhances the ability of learning disabled students to perform memory tasks.
Description of the Study:
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:Research in Rural Education, 7(1), pp. 61-70
Other Tags:Learning disabilities, direct instruction, Spelling Mastery Program, Wide Range of Achievement Test, Test of Written Spelling (TWS), morphemic analysis, phoneme analysis, spelling rules
Affiliation:
Design Type:Post-test only control group design with random assignment
Fidelity Data Reported:Yes
Location/Setting:Rural southeast, University based summer program
Participants:
Results:
Students Included:Fourth grade students, students with learning disabilities, Black students, and Caucasian students
3 of 22
"School-Wide Application of Direct Instruction: Spelling Mastery at Yeshiva"
Author(s):McCormick, John, Fitzgerald, Margaret,
Year:1997
Abstract:This article examines a study, which evaluated the effectiveness of the direct instruction program Spelling Mastery with 22 female Year Six students at Yeshiva College Primary School. The school had been using direct instruction programs in reading, language, spelling, writing, and math since 1982. Results of the South Australian Spelling Test showed all, but two students scored above norm scores. 81% of students scored at least one year above the average for their age group and 68% scored at least 2 years above grade level. Students were surveyed on their opinions of the Spelling Mastery program and results showed that in general the students had favorable attitudes to spelling. The students were reported as being confident in their ability to spell and valuing spelling as important Additionally all of the students felt the program was not too difficult and 45% reported the program as being too easy.
Description of the Study:
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:Effective School Practices, 16(3), pp. 39-47
Other Tags:Direct instruction, reading, language, spelling, writing, math, Spelling Mastery, South Australian Spelling Test, Proof Reading Tests of Spelling, curriculum survey
Affiliation:
Design Type:Normed comparison design
Fidelity Data Reported:No
Location/Setting:Yeshiva College Primary School, orthodox Jewish school, Bondi, New South Wales, Australia
Participants:
Results:
Students Included:Year Six students, Jewish students
4 of 22
"Students gains in a privately managed network of charter schools using Direct Instruction"
Author(s):Cross, R. W., Rebarber, T., & Wilson, S. F.
Year:2002
Abstract:This study examined the effect of Direct Instruction programs on the academic achievement of students in Advantage Schools, a privately managed network of charter schools. Direct Instruction programs were used in all schools. Multiple Direct Instruction programs were implemented for reading, writing, and mathematics instruction. Students were placed in the different programs based on their skill level. Data came from the 1999-2000 school year. Students were tested twice a year, once in the fall and once in the spring with the mathematics subtest of the Stanford Achievement Test-Ninth Edition (SAT-9). On average, students in the Advantage Schools learned at an accelerated rate in comparison to national norms. Across all grades the average student moved from the 25th percentile at the beginning of the year to the 29th percentile in the spring. The greatest gains were seen among kindergarten students, where the average student moved from the 34th to 46th percentile. All changes, except for those in grades one and seven, were statistically significant.
Description of the Study:This study examined the effect of Direct Instruction programs on the academic achievement of students in Advantage Schools, a privately managed network of charter schools. Direct Instruction programs were used in all schools. Multiple Direct Instruction programs were implemented for reading, writing, and mathematics instruction. Data came from the 1999-2000 school year. Students were tested twice a year, once in the fall and once in the spring with the mathematics subtest of the Stanford Achievement Test-Ninth Edition (SAT-9).
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:Journal of Direct Instruction, 2(1), 3-21
Other Tags:Advantage School, charter school, Language for Learning, DISTAR Language, Reading Mastery, DISTAR Arithmetic, Connecting Math Concepts, Reasoning and Writing, Spelling Mastery, Expressive Writing, implementation, Stanford Achievement Test Ninth Edition
Affiliation:Advantage Schools
Design Type:Pretest-Posttest Norm Comparison Design
Fidelity Data Reported:Yes
Location/Setting:Charter school, northeast, mid-west, south, west
Participants:
Results:On average, students in the Advantage Schools learned at an accelerated rate in comparison to national norms. Across all grades the average student moved from the 25th percentile at the beginning of the year to the 29th percentile in the spring. The greatest gains were seen among kindergarten students, where the average student moved from the 34th to 46th percentile. All changes, except for those in grades one and seven, were statistically significant.
Students Included:Kindergarten students, elementary school students, middle school students
5 of 22
"Linking special and general education services through Direct Instruction"
Author(s):N/A
Year:1991
Abstract:This study examined the effect of Direct Instruction (DI) programs on the academic achievement of elementary students in one elementary school. DI programs were initially implemented in special education classrooms and later introduced into some general education classrooms throughout the district. The DI programs implemented included DISTAR Language, DISTAR Reading, DISTAR Arithmetic, Reading Mastery, Corrective Reading, Corrective Mathematics, and Spelling Mastery. The California Achievement Test (CAT) was administered every year to fourth and sixth grade students. Results from the CAT in one DI school indicate significant growth in the language, reading, and mathematics scores of fourth and sixth grade students from the first year of implementation (1978) to six years later.
Description of the Study:This study examined the effect of Direct Instruction (DI) programs on the academic achievement of elementary students in one elementary school. DI programs were initially implemented in special education classrooms and later introduced into some general education classrooms throughout the district. The DI programs implemented included DISTAR Language, DISTAR Reading, DISTAR Arithmetic, Reading Mastery, Corrective Reading, Corrective Mathematics, and Spelling Mastery. The California Achievement Test (CAT) was administered every year to fourth and sixth grade students.
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:ADI News, 10(3), 18-19
Other Tags:DISTAR Language, DISTAR Reading, DISTAR Arithmetic, Reading Mastery, Corrective Reading, Corrective Mathematics, Spelling Mastery, California Achievement Test (Reprinted in 1991 in ADI News, 10(4), 39-40.)
Affiliation:N/A
Design Type:Cohort control group with historical comparison design
Fidelity Data Reported:No
Location/Setting:Moss Point, Mississippi, South
Participants:
Results:Results from the CAT in one DI school indicate significant growth in the language, reading, and mathematics scores of fourth and sixth grade students from the first year of implementation (1978) to six years later.
Students Included:Elementary students, special education students, low-performing students
6 of 22
"A study of intensive, systematic Direct Instruction for an autistic child"
Author(s):Rodman, M. L.
Year:2007
Abstract:This five-year study examined the effect of supplemental instruction with Direct Instruction (DI) programs by a parent on the academic achievement of an elementary student with autism spectrum disorder. At the beginning of the study, the subject was an eight year old female who was functioning at a pre-kindergarten level. The student received instruction with a variety of DI programs covering language, reading, and math. Curriculum based tests were administered throughout the course of the study to measure academic achievement. Additional tests were administered to measure social skills and cognitive development. Results indicate the student demonstrated significant gains in all areas of development over the course of the study. By the conclusion of the intervention the student had transitioned into the range of “normal performance” for academic performance and social skills. Additionally, her IQ was measured to be in the near normal range for her age by the conclusion of the study.
Description of the Study:This five-year study examined the effect of supplemental instruction with Direct Instruction (DI) programs by a parent on the academic achievement of an elementary student with autism spectrum disorder. At the beginning of the study, the subject was an eight year old female who was functioning at a pre-kindergarten level. The student received instruction with a variety of DI programs covering language, reading, and math. Curriculum based tests were administered throughout the course of the study to measure academic achievement. Additional tests were administered to measure social skills and cognitive development.
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Capella University: Minneapolis, MN
Other Tags:Parent tutoring, Reading Mastery Rainbow Edition, Corrective Reading, Language for Learning, Language for Thinking, Reasoning and Writing, Cursive Writing, Connecting Math Concepts, Spelling Mastery, Corrective Spelling Through Morphographs, social skills
Affiliation:Capella University
Design Type:Single subject design
Fidelity Data Reported:No
Location/Setting:Student’s home
Participants:
Results:Results indicate the student demonstrated significant gains in all areas of development over the course of the study. By the conclusion of the intervention the student had transitioned into the range of “normal performance” for academic performance and social skills. Additionally, her IQ was measured to be in the near normal range for her age by the conclusion of the study.
Students Included:Students with autism spectrum disorder, elementary student, students with learning disabilities, low-performing students, Caucasian students
7 of 22
"Combining categorical services does make a difference"
Author(s):Hertlein, F.
Year:1987
Abstract:This study examined the effect of Direct Instruction programs on the academic achievement of low-performing elementary students in one school district. The programs implemented included Reading Mastery, Spelling Mastery, Corrective Reading, DISTAR Language, Corrective Math, and Mastering Fractions. The Metropolitan Achievement Test was administered to all students in the fall and spring for pre- and posttest measures. Results indicated that on average, students demonstrated significant gains in language, reading, and mathematics.
Description of the Study:This study examined the effect of Direct Instruction programs on the academic achievement of low-performing elementary students in one school district. The programs implemented included Reading Mastery, Spelling Mastery, Corrective Reading, DISTAR Language, Corrective Math, and Mastering Fractions. The Metropolitan Achievement Test was administered to all students in the fall and spring for pre- and posttest measures.
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:ADI News 6(4), 1, 7
Other Tags:Reading Mastery, Spelling Mastery, Corrective Reading, DISTAR Language, Corrective Math, Mastering Fractions, Metropolitan Achievement Test
Affiliation:Mukilteo School District, Everett Washington
Design Type:Pretest posttest norm comparison design
Fidelity Data Reported:No
Location/Setting:Elementary school, Everett, Washington state, Pacific Northwest
Participants:
Results:Results indicated that on average, students demonstrated significant gains in language, reading, and mathematics.
Students Included:Elementary students, low-performing students, remedial students, special education students, English Language Learn students, English as a Second Language students
8 of 22
"A pilot study of the effect of Direct Instruction programming on the academic performance of students with intractable epilepsy"
Author(s):Humphries, T., Neufeld, M., Johnson, C., Enges, K., & McKay, R.
Year:2005
Abstract:This study examined the effect of Direct Instruction (DI) programs on the academic achievement of 55 students with intractable epilepsy and learning difficulties. The programs implemented included Reading Mastery, Corrective Reading, Horizons, Reasoning and Writing, Connecting Math Concepts, Language for Learning, and Spelling Mastery. Student ages ranged from 6.5 to 14.1 years and student mean IQ was 71.25. Students received instruction in groups of no more than 8, 3 to 4.5 times per week for up to 16 weeks. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale of Children was administered for pretest measures and the Woodcock Johnson Test of Achievement was administered for pre- and posttest measures. Pretest results indicated that students were below test means in reading and mathematics, particularly calculation. Posttest results indicated significant improvement in all academic areas except word identification in reading. Additionally, gains in passage comprehension and mathematic problem solving were associated with IQ level, but no academic gains were associated with seizure variables or the number of days of exposure to DI.
Description of the Study:This study examined the effect of Direct Instruction (DI) programs on the academic achievement of 55 students with intractable epilepsy and learning difficulties. The programs implemented included Reading Mastery, Corrective Reading, Horizons, Reasoning and Writing, Connecting Math Concepts, Language for Learning, and Spelling Mastery. Student ages ranged from 6.5 to 14.1 years and student mean IQ was 71.25. Students received instruction in groups of no more than 8, 3 to 4.5 times per week for up to 16 weeks. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale of Children was administered for pretest measures and the Woodcock Johnson Test of Achievement was administered for pre- and posttest measures.
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:Epilepsy & Behavior, 6(3), 405-412
Other Tags:Reading Mastery, Corrective Reading, Horizons, Reasoning and Writing, Connecting Math Concepts, Language for Learning, and Spelling Mastery, Woodcock Johnson Tests of Achievement-Revised, Wechsler Intelligence Scale of Children, reading, math, spelling, writing
Affiliation:Child Development Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada; Toronto District School Board; Toronto Catholic District School Board
Design Type:Pretest posttest, gain scores
Fidelity Data Reported:No
Location/Setting:Hospital based classroom, Child Development Centre, Hospital of Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
Participants:Elementary students, secondary students, students with intractable epilepsy, students with learning disabilities, at-risk students, Caucasian students, Asian students, Middle Eastern students, African American students, students with low IQs
Results:Pretest results indicated that students were below test means in reading and mathematics, particularly calculation. Posttest results indicated significant improvement in all academic areas except word identification in reading. Additionally, gains in passage comprehension and mathematic problem solving were associated with IQ level, but no academic gains were associated with seizure variables or the number of days of exposure to DI.
Students Included:Elementary students, secondary students, students with intractable epilepsy, students with learning disabilities, at-risk students, Caucasian students, Asian students, Middle Eastern students, African American students, students with low IQs
9 of 22
"Direct Instruction programs produce significant gains with at-risk middle school students"
Author(s):Sommers, J.
Year:1991
Abstract:This study examined the effect of Direct Instruction reading, spelling, and math programs on the academic achievement of at-risk middle school students in one school from 1985 to 1991. The programs implemented included Corrective Reading, Corrective Mathematics, Expressive Writing, Corrective Spelling Through Morphographs, and Spelling Mastery. The Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, the Key Math Diagnostic Test, and curriculum based measures were administered to measure student achievement. Results indicated that the Direct Instruction programs for reading, math, and spelling were very successful for at-risk and general education students. Students often demonstrated gains of grade equivalency exceeding the time of instruction with some students recording gains of one to five years over the course of one school year.
Description of the Study:This study examined the effect of Direct Instruction reading, spelling, and math programs on the academic achievement of at-risk middle school students in one school from 1985 to 1991. The programs implemented included Corrective Reading, Corrective Mathematics, Expressive Writing, Corrective Spelling Through Morphographs, and Spelling Mastery. The Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, the Key Math Diagnostic Test, and curriculum based measures were administered to measure student achievement.
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:Direct Instruction News, 11(1), 7-14
Other Tags:Reading, math, language, basic skills, Corrective Reading, Corrective Mathematics, Expressive Writing, Corrective Spelling Through Morphographs, Spelling Mastery, comprehension, Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, Key Math Diagnostic Test
Affiliation:Big Piney Middle School
Design Type:Pretest posttest gain scores
Fidelity Data Reported:No
Location/Setting:Middle school, Big Piney, Wyoming, rural area
Participants:
Results:Results indicated that the Direct Instruction programs for reading, math, and spelling were very successful for at-risk and general education students. Students often demonstrated gains of grade equivalency exceeding the time of instruction with some students recording gains of one to five years over the course of one school year.
Students Included:Middle school students, secondary students, at-risk students, remedial students, general education students
10 of 22
"Direct Instruction in spelling increases gain in spelling and reading skills"
Author(s):Lum, T., & Morton, L. L.
Year:1984
Abstract:This study compared the effects of Spelling Mastery (SM) and Spelling in Language Arts (SLA) on the acquisition of spelling skills by second grade students. The Wide Range of Achievement Test, the Test of Written Spelling, and the Slosson Oral Reading Test (SORT) were administered for pre- and posttest measures. Results indicated that students in the SM group made significantly greater gains in spelling than students in the SLA group. Female students outperformed male students in their respective programs. Results from the SORT indicated that students in the SM group recorded greater scores in oral reading than students in the SLA group. Female SM students recorded greater gains than female students in the SLA group while male students in both programs recorded similar gains.
Description of the Study:This study compared the effects of Spelling Mastery (SM) and Spelling in Language Arts (SLA) on the acquisition of spelling skills by second grade students. The Wide Range of Achievement Test, the Test of Written Spelling, and the Slosson Oral Reading Test (SORT) were administered for pre- and posttest measures.
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:Special Education in Canada, 58(2), 41-45
Other Tags:Spelling Mastery, Spelling in Language Arts, Wide Range of Achievement Test, Test of Written Spelling, Slosson Oral Reading Test, oral reading
Affiliation:The Northumberland and Newcastle Board of Education, Cobourg, Ontario, Canada
Design Type:Pretest posttest control group design with matched comparisons
Fidelity Data Reported:Yes
Location/Setting:Elementary school
Participants:Elementary students
Results:Results indicated that students in the SM group made significantly greater gains in spelling than students in the SLA group. Female students outperformed male students in their respective programs. Results from the SORT indicated that students in the SM group recorded greater scores in oral reading than students in the SLA group. Female SM students recorded greater gains than female students in the SLA group while male students in both programs recorded similar gains.
Students Included:Elementary students