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1 of 178
"Effects of a three-tier strategic model of intensifying instruction using a research-based core reading program in grades k–3"
Author(s):Marchand-Martella, N. E., Martella, R. C., Kolts, R. L., Mitchell, D., & Mitchell, C.
Year:2006
Abstract:This study examined the effect of a three-tier strategic model of intensifying instruction with Reading Mastery Plus with students in kindergarten through grade three at a Title I school. Typically achieving students and students who received special education or Title I/Learning Assistance Program (LAP) services participated in this study. The Diagnostic Indicators of Basic Skills (DIBELS) was used as a pre- and posttest for grades K-2. Students in grade three were administered the Scholastic Reading Inventory (SRI) for their pre- and posttest measures. Additionally, teacher satisfaction with the program and its implementation was measured with a 10 question survey following the completion of the study. Results indicated statistically significant improvements in reading achievement across all grades. When comparing the differences between pretest to posttest results, students who had received special education or Title I/Learning Assistance Program (LAP) services recorded achievement gains equivalent to their typically achieving peers. All students recorded pretest to posttest improvements of more than half of a standard deviation on all subtests. Additionally, results indicated that there were few differences in the achievement between students who received Title I/LAP and special education services. Results from the teacher questionnaire reported teacher satisfaction with every aspect of the program.
Description of the Study:This study examined the effect of a three-tier strategic model of intensifying instruction with Reading Mastery Plus with students in kindergarten through grade three at a Title I school. Typically achieving students and students who received special education or Title I/Learning Assistance Program (LAP) services participated in this study. The Diagnostic Indicators of Basic Skills (DIBELS) was used as a pre- and posttest for grades K-2. Students in grade three were administered the Scholastic Reading Inventory (SRI) for their pre- and posttest measures. Additionally, teacher satisfaction with the program and its implementation was measured with a 10 question survey following the completion of the study.
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:Journal of Direct Instruction, 6(1), 49–72
Other Tags:Reading Mastery Plus, Diagnostic Indicators of Basic Skills (DIBELS), Scholastic Reading Inventory (SRI), teacher satisfaction, Title I, Learning Assistance Program (LAP), Corrective Reading, Spelling Mastery, nonsense word fluency, oral reading fluency
Affiliation:Eastern Washington University
Design Type:Pretest-Posttest Norm Comparison Design
Fidelity Data Reported:Yes
Location/Setting:Title I elementary school, Pacific Northwest, suburb, Washington State
Participants:Elementary students, kindergarten students, at-risk students, special education students, students with learning disabilities, general education students
Results:Results indicated statistically significant improvements in reading achievement across all grades. When comparing the differences between pretest to posttest results, students who had received special education or Title I/Learning Assistance Program (LAP) services recorded achievement gains equivalent to their typically achieving peers. All students recorded pretest to posttest improvements of more than half of a standard deviation on all subtests. Additionally, results indicated that there were few differences in the achievement between students who received Title I/LAP and special education services. Results from the teacher questionnaire reported teacher satisfaction with every aspect of the program.
Students Included:Elementary students, kindergarten students, at-risk students, special education students, students with learning disabilities, general education students
2 of 178
"Reading scores rise at Alabama elementary school with Reading Mastery Plus"
Author(s):SRA/McGraw-Hill
Year:2007
Abstract:This study examined the effect of Reading Mastery Plus (RMP) on the reading achievement of students in grades K-6 in a small Alabama elementary school. RMP was implemented at Elba Elementary in the fall of 2005. Following two years of instruction with RMP, the percentage of third grade students meeting or exceeding state reading standards on the Alabama Reading and Mathematics Test increased from 80 to 88 percent. During this same time frame, the percentage of fifth and sixth grade students meeting or exceeding state reading standards increased from 71 to 83 and 88 to 94 percent, respectively.
Description of the Study:This study examined the effect of Reading Mastery Plus (RMP) on the reading achievement of students in grades K-6 in a small Alabama elementary school. RMP was implemented at Elba Elementary in the fall of 2005.
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:Columbus, OH: The McGraw-Hill Companies
Other Tags:Reading Mastery Plus, Alabama Reading and Mathematics Test, state standards
Affiliation:SRA/McGraw-Hill
Design Type:Cohort Control Group Historical Comparison Design
Fidelity Data Reported:Yes
Location/Setting:Elba Elementary, south, elementary school
Participants:Elementary students, kindergarten students, special education students, Caucasian students, African American students, low-SES students
Results:Following two years of instruction with RMP, the percentage of third grade students meeting or exceeding state reading standards on the Alabama Reading and Mathematics Test increased from 80 to 88 percent. During this same time frame, the percentage of fifth and sixth grade students meeting or exceeding state reading standards increased from 71 to 83 and 88 to 94 percent, respectively.
Students Included:Elementary students, kindergarten students, special education students, Caucasian students, African American students, low-SES students
3 of 178
"Direct Instruction In An Urban School System"
Author(s):Di Obilda, Nicholas, Brent, George
Year:1986
Abstract:This study examined the effect of implementing the Direct Instruction program, Reading Mastery, in an urban school system. In each school, two teachers were randomly assigned to teach either Reading Mastery or the previously used basal reading program. Each class consisted of 25 second grade students who were randomly assigned to the classrooms. At the conclusion of grade 2, the students were administered the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills, Form S, Level C. Results indicated that the only significant difference between the two groups was on the vocabulary subtest scores with students in the Reading Mastery group scoring significantly higher than students in the control group. On average, the Reading Mastery group scored at or above the national average on each measurement of the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills while the control group scored below the national average. Additionally, the authors concluded that Reading Mastery was clearly superior in developing vocabulary skills.
Description of the Study:This study examined the effect of implementing the Direct Instruction program, Reading Mastery, in an urban school system. In each school, two teachers were randomly assigned to teach either Reading Mastery or the previously used basal reading program. Each class consisted of 25 second grade students who were randomly assigned to the classrooms. At the conclusion of grade 2, the students were administered the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills, Form S, Level C.
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:The Reading Instruction Journal, 29, pp. 2-5
Other Tags:Direct Instruction, Reading Mastery, DISTAR Language, Mathematics Modules, Corrective Mathematics, Corrective Reading, Expressive Writing, Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills, Form S, Level C, Vocabulary, Sentence Comprehension, Passage Comprehension, Total Reading
Affiliation:Glassboro State College
Design Type:Posttest only control group design with random assignment
Fidelity Data Reported:Yes
Location/Setting:Urban school, southern New Jersey
Participants:
Results:Results indicated that the only significant difference between the two groups was on the vocabulary subtest scores with students in the Reading Mastery group scoring significantly higher than students in the control group. On average, the Reading Mastery group scored at or above the national average on each measurement of the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills while the control group scored below the national average. Additionally, the authors concluded that Reading Mastery was clearly superior in developing vocabulary skills.
Students Included:African American students, Hispanic students, second grade students, elementary school students
4 of 178
"Classroom observations and effects of reading interventions for students at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders"
Author(s):Wills, H., Kamps, D., Abbott, M., Bannister, H., & Kaufman, J.
Year:2010
Abstract:This four-year study examined the effect of reading interventions on the reading achievement of 171 elementary students with and without risk for emotional and behavior disorders. Students received instruction with either Guided Reading, Open Court, Reading Mastery, Read Well, Programmed Reading, or Early Interventions in Reading. The programs were implemented as part of a school-wide positive behavior support model. This study consisted of four experimental and four comparison schools. The experimental groups received instruction with one or more reading programs. The Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) and the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test were administered to all students for pre- and posttest measures. Results indicate that students in the experimental groups that received small-group instruction were more actively engaged in reading aloud and academic responding. These students also demonstrated larger gains on the DIBELS nonsense word fluency and oral reading fluency measures. Additionally, students with behavior/reading risk were as responsive to the intervention as students with only reading risks. Results for students who only received instruction with Reading Mastery indicated consistent gains in nonsense word fluency and oral word fluency scores in the first, second, and third grade.
Description of the Study:This four-year study examined the effect of reading interventions on the reading achievement of 171 elementary students with and without risk for emotional and behavior disorders. Students received instruction with either Guided Reading, Open Court, Reading Mastery, Read Well, Programmed Reading, or Early Interventions in Reading. The programs were implemented as part of a school-wide positive behavior support model. This study consisted of four experimental and four comparison schools. The experimental groups received instruction with one or more reading programs. The Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) and the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test were administered to all students for pre- and posttest measures.
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:Behavioral Disorders, 35(2), 103-119
Other Tags:Guided Reading, Open Court, Reading Mastery, Read Well, Programmed Reading, and Early Interventions in Reading, DIBELS, Woodcock Reading Mastery Test
Affiliation:Juniper Gardens Children’s Project, University of Kansas
Design Type:Pretest posttest control group design
Fidelity Data Reported:Yes
Location/Setting:Midwest, urban area, suburban area, elementary school
Participants:
Results:Results indicate that students in the experimental groups that received small-group instruction were more actively engaged in reading aloud and academic responding. These students also demonstrated larger gains on the DIBELS nonsense word fluency and oral reading fluency measures. Additionally, students with behavior/reading risk were as responsive to the intervention as students with only reading risks. Results for students who only received instruction with Reading Mastery indicated consistent gains in nonsense word fluency and oral word fluency scores in the first, second, and third grade.
Students Included:Elementary students, struggling readers, students with behavioral disorder, Caucasian students, African American students, Hispanic students, English Language Learners, English as a second Language students
5 of 178
"Phoenix inner-city students strive toward national reading average"
Author(s):SRA/McGraw-Hill
Year:2005
Abstract:This study examined the effect of Direct Instruction (DI) programs on the reading achievement of elementary students. In response to students performing below the national level, Reading Mastery was implemented at the Wilson Primary School in grades one to three for the 1998-1999 school year. Additionally, Language for Learning was implemented in kindergarten classrooms and used with English Language Learners (ELL) in grades 1-3. The Stanford Achievement Test was administered yearly until 2005 when it was replaced with the Terra Nova test. Following the implementation of DI programs, results indicated an increase in reading achievement approaching national averages. After one year of exposure to DI, third grade students increased their average reading percentile scores on the SAT from 17 to 50. Between 1999 and 2001, second grade students increased their SAT reading percentile scores from 56 to 69. In 2003 the state ranked the school as Underperforming, but by 2005 the school received the rank of Performing Plus. In 2004 the school achieved Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for the first time, and earned the same honor the following year.
Description of the Study:This study examined the effect of Direct Instruction (DI) programs on the reading achievement of elementary students. In response to students performing below the national level, Reading Mastery was implemented at the Wilson Primary School in grades one to three for the 1998-1999 school year. Additionally, Language for Learning was implemented in kindergarten classrooms and used with English Language Learners (ELL) in grades 1-3. The Stanford Achievement Test was administered yearly until 2005 when it was replaced with the Terra Nova test.
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:SRA/McGraw-Hill
Other Tags:Reading Mastery, Language for Learning, English Language Learners (ELL), Stanford Achievement Test (SAT), Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)
Affiliation:SRA/McGraw-Hill
Design Type:Posttest Only Norm Comparison Design
Fidelity Data Reported:No
Location/Setting:Phoenix, Arizona, elementary school
Participants:Elementary students, kindergarten students, Hispanic students, English Language Learners (ELL) students, English as a Second Language (ESL) students, low-SES students
Results:Following the implementation of DI programs, results indicated an increase in reading achievement approaching national averages. After one year of exposure to DI, third grade students increased their average reading percentile scores on the SAT from 17 to 50. Between 1999 and 2001, second grade students increased their SAT reading percentile scores from 56 to 69. In 2003 the state ranked the school as Underperforming, but by 2005 the school received the rank of Performing Plus. In 2004 the school achieved Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for the first time, and earned the same honor the following year.
Students Included:Elementary students, kindergarten students, Hispanic students, English Language Learners (ELL) students, English as a Second Language (ESL) students, low-SES students
6 of 178
"A comparison of reading achievement made by LD and low IQ students using a Direct Instruction reading program"
Author(s):Sprinkman, A.
Year:2001
Abstract:This nine-month study examines the effect of Reading Mastery on the reading and writing achievement of two male fourth grade students. One student was diagnosed with learning disabilities and the other was a low-performing student. The students were administered curriculum based measures and the Woodcock McGrew-Werder Mini Battery of Achievement for pre- and posttest measures. Results indicate that the student with learning disabilities demonstrated gains in grade equivalency of 1.5 and 1.9 for reading and writing respectfully. The low-performing student demonstrated gains in grade equivalency of 0.1 and 0.3 for reading and writing respectfully.
Description of the Study:This nine-month study examines the effect of Reading Mastery on the reading and writing achievement of two male fourth grade students. One student was diagnosed with learning disabilities and the other was a low-performing student. The students were administered curriculum based measures and the Woodcock McGrew-Werder Mini Battery of Achievement for pre- and posttest measures.
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:Unpublished master's thesis. Cardinal Stritch University, Milwaukee, WI
Other Tags:Reading Mastery, Woodcock McGrew-Werder Mini Battery of Achievement, letter identification, word identification, vocabulary, reading comprehension
Affiliation:Cardinal Stritch University
Design Type:Pretest posttest gain scores
Fidelity Data Reported:No
Location/Setting:Midwest, Wisconsin, public school, elementary school
Participants:
Results:Results indicate that the student with learning disabilities demonstrated gains in grade equivalency of 1.5 and 1.9 for reading and writing respectfully. The low-performing student demonstrated gains in grade equivalency of 0.1 and 0.3 for reading and writing respectfully.
Students Included:Elementary students, low-performing students, special education students, students with learning disabilities, African American students
7 of 178
"Madison elementary is ‘breaking barriers’ with Direct Instruction"
Author(s):SRA/McGraw-Hill
Year:2013
Abstract:This study examined the effect of Reading Mastery (RM) on the reading achievement of elementary students in one school. In response to only 25 percent of third grade students scoring proficient on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS), RM was implemented in second and third grade classrooms as a pilot program later that schoolyear (2002-2003). Results indicate that the same students who recorded scores of 25 percent proficient in November increased this average to over 60 percent when retested in April. The initial success of RM led the school to expand the program to other grades the following year. Proficiency scores on the ITBS continued to improve with an average over 70 percent for the following eight years and over 84 percent in the ninth year, which far exceeded the state average. Additionally, African American students in grades three to five scoring proficient increased from 66.7 percent in 2010-2011 to 84.5 percent in 2011-2012.
Description of the Study:This study examined the effect of Reading Mastery (RM) on the reading achievement of elementary students in one school. In response to only 25 percent of third grade students scoring proficient on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS), RM was implemented in second and third grade classrooms as a pilot program later that schoolyear (2002-2003).
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:SRA/McGraw-Hill
Other Tags:Reading Mastery, Iowa Test of Basic Skills, low-performing students
Affiliation:SRA/McGraw-Hill
Design Type:Cohort control with historical comparison design, pretest posttest gain scores
Fidelity Data Reported:Yes
Location/Setting:Elementary school, Davenport, Iowa
Participants:
Results:Results indicate that the same students who recorded scores of 25 percent proficient in November increased this average to over 60 percent when retested in April. The initial success of RM led the school to expand the program to other grades the following year. Proficiency scores on the ITBS continued to improve with an average over 70 percent for the following eight years and over 84 percent in the ninth year, which far exceeded the state average. Additionally, African American students in grades three to five scoring proficient increased from 66.7 percent in 2010-2011 to 84.5 percent in 2011-2012.
Students Included:Elementary students, low-performing students, at risk students, low-SES students, Caucasian students, African American students
8 of 178
"Effects of comprehensive school reform on student achievement and school change: A longitudinal multi-site study"
Author(s):Sterbinsky, A., Ross, S.M., & Redfield, D.
Year:2006
Abstract:This three-year longitudinal study examined the effect of four Comprehensive School Reform (CFR) models on the academic achievement of elementary students in 12 schools. These four models included Direct Instruction, Balanced Early Literacy, Core Knowledge, and Success for All. Each school was matched with a demographically similar school that had not implemented a CFR model. These pairs of schools were compared on the measures of school climate, teacher satisfaction, observed classroom teaching methods, and academic achievement on four reading tests. Results indicated that all four models had a positive impact on teacher attitudes, school climate, and student achievement. For schools that implemented the Direct Instruction model, there were no significant differences in the academic achievement of students at Direct Instruction schools and those in the paired control schools. Overall, results indicate model-consistent effects on teaching strategies employed, mixed results on teacher attitudes and school climate, and no effects on student achievement.
Description of the Study:This three-year longitudinal study examined the effect of four Comprehensive School Reform (CFR) models on the academic achievement of elementary students in 12 schools. These four models included Direct Instruction, Balanced Early Literacy, Core Knowledge, and Success for All. Each school was matched with a demographically similar school that had not implemented a CFR model. These pairs of schools were compared on the measures of school climate, teacher satisfaction, observed classroom teaching methods, and academic achievement on four reading tests.
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:School Effectiveness and School Improvement,17(3), 367-397
Other Tags:Direct Instruction, Balanced Early Literacy, Core Knowledge, Success for All, School Observation Model, School Climate Inventory, Comprehensive School Reform Teacher Questionnaire, Woodcock-Johnson Reading Mastery Tests, Durrell Oral Reading Test
Affiliation:University of Memphis, AEL Inc
Design Type:Pretest posttest control group design
Fidelity Data Reported:No
Location/Setting:Rural area, urban area, Kentucky, West Virginia, Tennessee, Virginia, elementary school
Participants:
Results:Results indicated that all four models had a positive impact on teacher attitudes, school climate, and student achievement. For schools that implemented the Direct Instruction model, there were no significant differences in the academic achievement of students at Direct Instruction schools and those in the paired control schools. Overall, results indicate model-consistent effects on teaching strategies employed, mixed results on teacher attitudes and school climate, and no effects on student achievement.
Students Included:Elementary students, low-SES students
9 of 178
"Direct Instruction and Reading in Africa: A Comparison of DIBELS Scores of a DI School in Liberia, a Comparison Liberian School, and US Schools"
Author(s):Stockard, J.
Year:2010
Abstract:This report first summarizes research on Direct Instruction (DI) and its use in the African context in the 1980s and 1990s. Next, the report describes the use of DI in a Liberian school and reports data on reading skills, comparing the achievement of the Liberian DI students to Liberian students in a comparison school and to students in the rural Midwestern United States that used DI. In the summer of 2004, Oregon-based educational consultants trained instructors at the school on techniques associated with Reading Mastery, Language for Learning, Reasoning and Writing, and Connecting Math Concepts. To examine students’ reading achievement, in fall, 2009, a random sample of 43 second to sixth grade students from the experimental group were administered the DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) probes. 19 students from two nearby schools with similar populations, but did not use DI were used as a comparison group. Results from the DIBELS ORF indicated the mean scores for students in the Liberian DI school markedly outperformed the students in the comparison Liberian schools. The differences were always more than a standard deviation in magnitude. In comparison to the students selected from the U.S., the Liberian DI students had lower DIBEL ORF scores in the second through fourth grade, with differences ranging from about one half to almost three-quarters of a standard deviation in magnitude. However, the differences decreased in the higher grades. The Liberian DI student scores were within one-tenth of a standard deviation of the U.S. students. When scores from the three U.S. communities were disaggregated across the school districts, comparisons to the Liberian DI students indicated the average Liberian DI fifth grade student had higher DIBELS ORF scored than the average fifth grader in two of the comparison Midwest communities. Additionally, the average Liberian DI sixth grade student had a higher score than sixth grade students in one of the communities and came close to the average score in another community. Based on the DIBELS scores, and using mid-year U.S. norms for their grade, about one-third of the students in the Liberian DI group would be labeled at-risk of having future academic difficulties, while all but one student from the comparison group would have been given the same designation. Additionally, none of the students in the comparison group were labeled as low-risk, while one-third of the students in the experimental group received this designation.
Description of the Study:This report first summarizes research on Direct Instruction (DI) and its use in the African context in the 1980s and 1990s. Next, the report describes the use of DI in a Liberian school and reports data on reading skills, comparing the achievement of the Liberian DI students to Liberian students in a comparison school and to students in the rural Midwestern United States that used DI. In the summer of 2004, Oregon-based educational consultants trained instructors at the school on techniques associated with Reading Mastery, Language for Learning, Reasoning and Writing, and Connecting Math Concepts. To examine students’ reading achievement, in fall, 2009, a random sample of 43 second to sixth grade students from the experimental group were administered the DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) probes. 19 students from two nearby schools with similar populations, but did not use DI were used as a comparison group.
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:NIFDI Technical Report 2010-1
Other Tags:Reading Mastery, Language for Learning, Reasoning and Writing, Connecting Math Concepts, DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (ORF)
Affiliation:National Institute for Direct Instruction
Design Type:Non-matched comparison
Fidelity Data Reported:No
Location/Setting:Monrovia, Liberia, West Africa, elementary school, Midwest U.S.
Participants:Elementary school students, at-risk students
Results:Results from the DIBELS ORF indicated the mean scores for students in the Liberian DI school markedly outperformed the students in the comparison Liberian schools. The differences were always more than a standard deviation in magnitude. In comparison to the students selected from the U.S., the Liberian DI students had lower DIBEL ORF scores in the second through fourth grade, with differences ranging from about one half to almost three-quarters of a standard deviation in magnitude. However, the differences decreased in the higher grades. The Liberian DI student scores were within one-tenth of a standard deviation of the U.S. students. When scores from the three U.S. communities were disaggregated across the school districts, comparisons to the Liberian DI students indicated the average Liberian DI fifth grade student had higher DIBELS ORF scored than the average fifth grader in two of the comparison Midwest communities. Additionally, the average Liberian DI sixth grade student had a higher score than sixth grade students in one of the communities and came close to the average score in another community. Based on the DIBELS scores, and using mid-year U.S. norms for their grade, about one-third of the students in the Liberian DI group would be labeled at-risk of having future academic difficulties, while all but one student from the comparison group would have been given the same designation. Additionally, none of the students in the comparison group were labeled as low-risk, while one-third of the students in the experimental group received this designation.
Students Included:Elementary school students, at-risk students
10 of 178
"Increasing reading skills in rural areas: An analysis of three school districts"
Author(s):Stockard, J.
Year:2011
Abstract:Reviews of research on rural education suggest that identifying ways to help rural schools improve teachers’ pedagogical skills should be a high priority. This article addresses this issue by examining changes in reading skills through the primary grades of students in three rural, Midwestern districts that occurred after the implementation of Reading Mastery (RM). Using a cohort control group design, reading skills of students who had the curriculum from the beginning of kindergarten (full exposure cohorts) were compared with those of students who did not have RM in kindergarten. By the middle of kindergarten, those taught with RM had significantly higher DIBELS scores than students in the other cohorts and scores that were equal to or higher than a national sample. Differences remained strong and significant through grade three, and effect sizes generally surpassed usual standards of educational significance. Data were available on scores on state reading examinations for fourth graders in one of the districts, and similar results were found.
Description of the Study:Reviews of research on rural education suggest that identifying ways to help rural schools improve teachers’ pedagogical skills should be a high priority. This article addresses this issue by examining changes in reading skills through the primary grades of students in three rural, Midwestern districts that occurred after the implementation of Reading Mastery (RM). Using a cohort control group design, reading skills of students who had the curriculum from the beginning of kindergarten (full exposure cohorts) were compared with those of students who did not have RM in kindergarten.
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:Journal of Research in Rural Education, 26(8), 1-19.
Other Tags:Reading Mastery, DIBELS, state achievement test, curriculum based measures
Affiliation:National Institute for Direct Instruction
Design Type:Pretest Posttest Norm Comparison Design and Pretest Posttest Cohort Control Group Design
Fidelity Data Reported:No
Location/Setting:Midwest, urban inner city, rural area
Participants:Elementary students, rural students, Hispanic students, Caucasian students
Results:By the middle of kindergarten, those taught with RM had significantly higher DIBELS scores than students in the other cohorts and scores that were equal to or higher than a national sample. Differences remained strong and significant through grade three, and effect sizes generally surpassed usual standards of educational significance. Data were available on scores on state reading examinations for fourth graders in one of the districts, and similar results were found.
Students Included:Elementary students, rural students, Hispanic students, Caucasian students