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1 of 39
"Phoenix inner-city students strive toward national reading average"
Author(s):SRA/McGraw-Hill
Year:2005
Abstract:This study examined the effect of Direct Instruction (DI) programs on the reading achievement of elementary students. In response to students performing below the national level, Reading Mastery was implemented at the Wilson Primary School in grades one to three for the 1998-1999 school year. Additionally, Language for Learning was implemented in kindergarten classrooms and used with English Language Learners (ELL) in grades 1-3. The Stanford Achievement Test was administered yearly until 2005 when it was replaced with the Terra Nova test. Following the implementation of DI programs, results indicated an increase in reading achievement approaching national averages. After one year of exposure to DI, third grade students increased their average reading percentile scores on the SAT from 17 to 50. Between 1999 and 2001, second grade students increased their SAT reading percentile scores from 56 to 69. In 2003 the state ranked the school as Underperforming, but by 2005 the school received the rank of Performing Plus. In 2004 the school achieved Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for the first time, and earned the same honor the following year.
Description of the Study:This study examined the effect of Direct Instruction (DI) programs on the reading achievement of elementary students. In response to students performing below the national level, Reading Mastery was implemented at the Wilson Primary School in grades one to three for the 1998-1999 school year. Additionally, Language for Learning was implemented in kindergarten classrooms and used with English Language Learners (ELL) in grades 1-3. The Stanford Achievement Test was administered yearly until 2005 when it was replaced with the Terra Nova test.
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:SRA/McGraw-Hill
Other Tags:Reading Mastery, Language for Learning, English Language Learners (ELL), Stanford Achievement Test (SAT), Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)
Affiliation:SRA/McGraw-Hill
Design Type:Posttest Only Norm Comparison Design
Fidelity Data Reported:No
Location/Setting:Phoenix, Arizona, elementary school
Participants:Elementary students, kindergarten students, Hispanic students, English Language Learners (ELL) students, English as a Second Language (ESL) students, low-SES students
Results:Following the implementation of DI programs, results indicated an increase in reading achievement approaching national averages. After one year of exposure to DI, third grade students increased their average reading percentile scores on the SAT from 17 to 50. Between 1999 and 2001, second grade students increased their SAT reading percentile scores from 56 to 69. In 2003 the state ranked the school as Underperforming, but by 2005 the school received the rank of Performing Plus. In 2004 the school achieved Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for the first time, and earned the same honor the following year.
Students Included:Elementary students, kindergarten students, Hispanic students, English Language Learners (ELL) students, English as a Second Language (ESL) students, low-SES students
2 of 39
"Direct Instruction and Reading in Africa: A Comparison of DIBELS Scores of a DI School in Liberia, a Comparison Liberian School, and US Schools"
Author(s):Stockard, J.
Year:2010
Abstract:This report first summarizes research on Direct Instruction (DI) and its use in the African context in the 1980s and 1990s. Next, the report describes the use of DI in a Liberian school and reports data on reading skills, comparing the achievement of the Liberian DI students to Liberian students in a comparison school and to students in the rural Midwestern United States that used DI. In the summer of 2004, Oregon-based educational consultants trained instructors at the school on techniques associated with Reading Mastery, Language for Learning, Reasoning and Writing, and Connecting Math Concepts. To examine students’ reading achievement, in fall, 2009, a random sample of 43 second to sixth grade students from the experimental group were administered the DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) probes. 19 students from two nearby schools with similar populations, but did not use DI were used as a comparison group. Results from the DIBELS ORF indicated the mean scores for students in the Liberian DI school markedly outperformed the students in the comparison Liberian schools. The differences were always more than a standard deviation in magnitude. In comparison to the students selected from the U.S., the Liberian DI students had lower DIBEL ORF scores in the second through fourth grade, with differences ranging from about one half to almost three-quarters of a standard deviation in magnitude. However, the differences decreased in the higher grades. The Liberian DI student scores were within one-tenth of a standard deviation of the U.S. students. When scores from the three U.S. communities were disaggregated across the school districts, comparisons to the Liberian DI students indicated the average Liberian DI fifth grade student had higher DIBELS ORF scored than the average fifth grader in two of the comparison Midwest communities. Additionally, the average Liberian DI sixth grade student had a higher score than sixth grade students in one of the communities and came close to the average score in another community. Based on the DIBELS scores, and using mid-year U.S. norms for their grade, about one-third of the students in the Liberian DI group would be labeled at-risk of having future academic difficulties, while all but one student from the comparison group would have been given the same designation. Additionally, none of the students in the comparison group were labeled as low-risk, while one-third of the students in the experimental group received this designation.
Description of the Study:This report first summarizes research on Direct Instruction (DI) and its use in the African context in the 1980s and 1990s. Next, the report describes the use of DI in a Liberian school and reports data on reading skills, comparing the achievement of the Liberian DI students to Liberian students in a comparison school and to students in the rural Midwestern United States that used DI. In the summer of 2004, Oregon-based educational consultants trained instructors at the school on techniques associated with Reading Mastery, Language for Learning, Reasoning and Writing, and Connecting Math Concepts. To examine students’ reading achievement, in fall, 2009, a random sample of 43 second to sixth grade students from the experimental group were administered the DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) probes. 19 students from two nearby schools with similar populations, but did not use DI were used as a comparison group.
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:NIFDI Technical Report 2010-1
Other Tags:Reading Mastery, Language for Learning, Reasoning and Writing, Connecting Math Concepts, DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (ORF)
Affiliation:National Institute for Direct Instruction
Design Type:Non-matched comparison
Fidelity Data Reported:No
Location/Setting:Monrovia, Liberia, West Africa, elementary school, Midwest U.S.
Participants:Elementary school students, at-risk students
Results:Results from the DIBELS ORF indicated the mean scores for students in the Liberian DI school markedly outperformed the students in the comparison Liberian schools. The differences were always more than a standard deviation in magnitude. In comparison to the students selected from the U.S., the Liberian DI students had lower DIBEL ORF scores in the second through fourth grade, with differences ranging from about one half to almost three-quarters of a standard deviation in magnitude. However, the differences decreased in the higher grades. The Liberian DI student scores were within one-tenth of a standard deviation of the U.S. students. When scores from the three U.S. communities were disaggregated across the school districts, comparisons to the Liberian DI students indicated the average Liberian DI fifth grade student had higher DIBELS ORF scored than the average fifth grader in two of the comparison Midwest communities. Additionally, the average Liberian DI sixth grade student had a higher score than sixth grade students in one of the communities and came close to the average score in another community. Based on the DIBELS scores, and using mid-year U.S. norms for their grade, about one-third of the students in the Liberian DI group would be labeled at-risk of having future academic difficulties, while all but one student from the comparison group would have been given the same designation. Additionally, none of the students in the comparison group were labeled as low-risk, while one-third of the students in the experimental group received this designation.
Students Included:Elementary school students, at-risk students
3 of 39
"Educators' views of implementing Direct Instruction curricula: Connections to students with disabilities"
Author(s):Wilson, B.
Year:2000
Abstract:This study examined the implementation and effect of Direct Instruction programs on the academic achievement of kindergarten and elementary students in one school. The programs implemented included Reading Mastery, Corrective Reading, and Language for Learning. Teachers were interviewed for their opinions on the implementation and effectiveness of the programs. Student achievement was tracked and measured by curriculum-based assessments. Results indicated that students were very successful in achieving mastery of the skills and knowledge presented in the reading and language programs. Students progressed through the lessons at one third or half the rate expected over one school year. Results from teacher interviews indicated mixed impressions of the programs. Teachers who had a negative impression of the program criticized the use of scripted lessons, the grouping of students based on skill level, coaching of the materials, and not being informed about the change in programs at the school before implementation.
Description of the Study:This study examined the implementation and effect of Direct Instruction programs on the academic achievement of kindergarten and elementary students in one school. The programs implemented included Reading Mastery, Corrective Reading, and Language for Learning. Teachers were interviewed for their opinions on the implementation and effectiveness of the programs. Student achievement was tracked and measured by curriculum-based assessments.
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:Dissertation Abstracts International, 62 (04A), 239-1318. Doctoral dissertation, West Virginia University
Other Tags:Reading Mastery, Corrective Reading, Language for Learning, implementation, teacher opinions
Affiliation:West Virginia University
Design Type:Qualitative
Fidelity Data Reported:Yes
Location/Setting:West Virginia, elementary school
Participants:
Results:Results indicated that students were very successful in achieving mastery of the skills and knowledge presented in the reading and language programs. Students progressed through the lessons at one third or half the rate expected over one school year. Results from teacher interviews indicated mixed impressions of the programs. Teachers who had a negative impression of the program criticized the use of scripted lessons, the grouping of students based on skill level, coaching of the materials, and not being informed about the change in programs at the school before implementation.
Students Included:Elementary students, kindergarten students, low-SES students, students with learning disabilities
4 of 39
"Native American school uses Reading First grant to implement Direct Instruction"
Author(s):SRA/McGraw-Hill
Year:2006
Abstract:This study examined the effect of Reading Mastery Plus (RMP)on the reading achievement of kindergarten and elementary students. After receiving a Reading First grant, RMP was implemented in kindergarten through 3rd grade classrooms at the Nay Ah Shing School at the beginning of the 2004-2005 school year. Following the initial success of RMP, the Language for Learning program was implemented in pre-kindergarten classrooms. During the first year of administering RMP (Fall, 2004), the percentage of students scoring at benchmark level on the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) test was 22%. By the spring of 2006, the percentage rose to 69%. DIBELS scores at each grade level rose throughout the 2004-2005 and 2005-2006 school years. Results from the Stanford Achievement Test indicated that scores increased for kindergarten through 3rd grade students between 2005 and 2006.
Description of the Study:This study examined the effect of Reading Mastery Plus (RMP) on the reading achievement of kindergarten and elementary students. After receiving a Reading First grant, RMP was implemented in kindergarten through 3rd grade classrooms at the Nay Ah Shing School at the beginning of the 2004-2005 school year. Following the initial success of RMP, the Language for Learning program was implemented in pre-kindergarten classrooms.
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:Columbus, OH: The McGraw-Hill Companies
Other Tags:Reading Mastery Plus, Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS), Stanford Achievement Test (SAT), Language for Learning
Affiliation:SRA/McGraw-Hill
Design Type:Cohort Control Group Design
Fidelity Data Reported:No
Location/Setting:Onamia, Minnesota, elementary school, middle school, high school
Participants:Native American students, elementary students, kindergarten students, preschool students
Results:During the first year of administering RMP (Fall, 2004), the percentage of students scoring at benchmark level on the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) test was 22%. By the spring of 2006, the percentage rose to 69%. DIBELS scores at each grade level rose throughout the 2004-2005 and 2005-2006 school years. Results from the Stanford Achievement Test indicated that scores increased for kindergarten through 3rd grade students between 2005 and 2006.
Students Included:Native American students, elementary students, kindergarten students, preschool students
5 of 39
"ELL and Struggling students at Wisconsin district build literacy skills with Direct Instruction"
Author(s):SRA/McGraw-Hill
Year:N.D.
Abstract:This study examined the effect of Direct Instruction programs on the literacy skills of English Language Learner (ELL) students. Corrective Reading (CR) was introduced as a pilot program in the fall of 2005 in grades 6-8. Following the initial success of CR, additional Direct Instruction programs were implemented across the district for all struggling readers. In the fall of 2006, Reading Mastery (RM) was implemented in grades 3-5, Language for Learning (LL) was implemented with k-12 ELL students new to the school district, and CR was expanded to grades 9-12. Results indicated a significant improvement on the percentage of eighth grade ELL students scoring proficient or advanced on the Wisconsin Knowledge and Concepts Examination (WKCE) test with an increase from 64% in 2004 to 76% in 2005. All eighth grade students demonstrated an increase from 85% in 2004 to 88% in 2005. Both ELL and general education students demonstrated notable gains in reading achievement and confidence.
Description of the Study:This study examined the effect of Direct Instruction programs on the literacy skills of English Language Learner (ELL) students. Corrective Reading (CR) was introduced as a pilot program in the fall of 2005 in grades 6-8. Following the initial success of CR, additional Direct Instruction programs were implemented across the district for all struggling readers. In the fall of 2006, Reading Mastery (RM) was implemented in grades 3-5, Language for Learning (LL) was implemented with k-12 ELL students new to the school district, and CR was expanded to grades 9-12.
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:SRA/McGraw Hill
Other Tags:Reading, literacy skills, Corrective Reading, student confidence, English Language Learner (ELL) students, Reading Mastery, Language for Learning, Wisconsin Knowledge and Concepts Examination (WKCE) test
Affiliation:SRA/McGraw Hill
Design Type:Cohort Control Group Design
Fidelity Data Reported:No
Location/Setting:Wausau, Wisconsin, middle school
Participants:English Language Learner (ELL) students, SE Asian students, secondary students, struggling readers, special education students, general education, Caucasian students, at-risk students, low-SES students
Results:Results indicated a significant improvement on the percentage of eighth grade ELL students scoring proficient or advanced on the Wisconsin Knowledge and Concepts Examination (WKCE) test with an increase from 64% in 2004 to 76% in 2005. All eighth grade students demonstrated an increase from 85% in 2004 to 88% in 2005. Both ELL and general education students demonstrated notable gains in reading achievement and confidence.
Students Included:English Language Learner (ELL) students, SE Asian students, secondary students, struggling readers, special education students, general education, Caucasian students, at-risk students, low-SES students
6 of 39
"Promoting reading achievement and countering the “fourth-grade slump”: The impact of Direct Instruction on reading achievement in fifth grade"
Author(s):Stockard, J.
Year:2010
Abstract:Previous research has documented a substantial decline of standardized test scores of children from low-income backgrounds relative to more advantaged peers in later elementary grades, the so-called “fourth-grade slump.” This article examines changes in reading achievement from first to fifth grade for students in a large urban school system with a high proportion of students from economically deprived backgrounds. Students received first grade reading instruction from Direct Instruction (DI), Open Court, or a mixture of reading curricula. Results indicated that students in schools using DI had significantly greater gains in both reading vocabulary and comprehension than students in the two other settings and that their average levels of achievement in fifth grade were above the national norms, thus countering the fourth-grade slump.
Description of the Study:Previous research has documented a substantial decline of standardized test scores of children from low-income backgrounds relative to more advantaged peers in later elementary grades, the so-called “fourth-grade slump.” This article examines changes in reading achievement from first to fifth grade for students in a large urban school system with a high proportion of students from economically deprived backgrounds. Students received first grade reading instruction from Direct Instruction (DI), Open Court, or a mixture of reading curricula.
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 15, 218-240
Other Tags:Reading Mastery, Open Court, norm referenced tests, Language for Learning, Language for Thinking, Reasoning and Writing, CTBS/Terra Nova, fourth grade slump, reading vocabulary, reading comprehension
Affiliation:National Institute for Direct Instruction
Design Type:Pretest Posttest Control Group Design with statistical adjustments
Fidelity Data Reported:No
Location/Setting:South/Atlantic, elementary school
Participants:Elementary students, African American students, low-SES students, general education students
Results:Results indicated that students in schools using DI had significantly greater gains in both reading vocabulary and comprehension than students in the two other settings and that their average levels of achievement in fifth grade were above the national norms, thus countering the fourth-grade slump.
Students Included:Elementary students, African American students, low-SES students, general education students
7 of 39
"Students gains in a privately managed network of charter schools using Direct Instruction"
Author(s):Cross, R. W., Rebarber, T., & Wilson, S. F.
Year:2002
Abstract:This study examined the effect of Direct Instruction programs on the academic achievement of students in Advantage Schools, a privately managed network of charter schools. Direct Instruction programs were used in all schools. Multiple Direct Instruction programs were implemented for reading, writing, and mathematics instruction. Students were placed in the different programs based on their skill level. Data came from the 1999-2000 school year. Students were tested twice a year, once in the fall and once in the spring with the mathematics subtest of the Stanford Achievement Test-Ninth Edition (SAT-9). On average, students in the Advantage Schools learned at an accelerated rate in comparison to national norms. Across all grades the average student moved from the 25th percentile at the beginning of the year to the 29th percentile in the spring. The greatest gains were seen among kindergarten students, where the average student moved from the 34th to 46th percentile. All changes, except for those in grades one and seven, were statistically significant.
Description of the Study:This study examined the effect of Direct Instruction programs on the academic achievement of students in Advantage Schools, a privately managed network of charter schools. Direct Instruction programs were used in all schools. Multiple Direct Instruction programs were implemented for reading, writing, and mathematics instruction. Data came from the 1999-2000 school year. Students were tested twice a year, once in the fall and once in the spring with the mathematics subtest of the Stanford Achievement Test-Ninth Edition (SAT-9).
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:Journal of Direct Instruction, 2(1), 3-21
Other Tags:Advantage School, charter school, Language for Learning, DISTAR Language, Reading Mastery, DISTAR Arithmetic, Connecting Math Concepts, Reasoning and Writing, Spelling Mastery, Expressive Writing, implementation, Stanford Achievement Test Ninth Edition
Affiliation:Advantage Schools
Design Type:Pretest-Posttest Norm Comparison Design
Fidelity Data Reported:Yes
Location/Setting:Charter school, northeast, mid-west, south, west
Participants:
Results:On average, students in the Advantage Schools learned at an accelerated rate in comparison to national norms. Across all grades the average student moved from the 25th percentile at the beginning of the year to the 29th percentile in the spring. The greatest gains were seen among kindergarten students, where the average student moved from the 34th to 46th percentile. All changes, except for those in grades one and seven, were statistically significant.
Students Included:Kindergarten students, elementary school students, middle school students
8 of 39
"Anchorage school’s diverse population flourishes with Direct Instruction"
Author(s):S.R.A./ McGraw-Hill
Year:N.D.
Abstract:This study examined the effect of the implementation of Direct Instruction programs in an elementary school in Anchorage, Alaska. During the 2001-2002 school year, the Direct Instruction (DI) programs Language for Learning, Reading Mastery, and Corrective Reading were implemented. Results indicated that after implementing DI, 43% of third grade students met or exceeded state reading standards, an increase from 27% the previous year. By 2005, 65% of the students met or exceeded state reading standards. During the first year of implementation, 49% of students in grades 4-6 were placed in the Corrective Reading program. By the 2003-2004 school year only 20% of intermediate students were placed in the program.
Description of the Study:This study examined the effect of the implementation of Direct Instruction programs in an elementary school in Anchorage, Alaska. During the 2001-2002 school year, the Direct Instruction (DI) programs Language for Learning, Reading Mastery, and Corrective Reading were implemented.
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:Columbus, OH: The McGraw-Hill Companies
Other Tags:Reading Mastery, Language for Learning, Corrective Reading
Affiliation:S.R.A./ McGraw-Hill
Design Type:Cohort Control Group Design
Fidelity Data Reported:No
Location/Setting:Anchorage, Alaska, elementary school
Participants:Elementary students, kindergarten students, African American students, Caucasian students, Hispanic students, Asian students, Native Alaskan students, English Language Learner (ELL) students, English as a Second Language (ESL) students
Results:Results indicated that after implementing DI, 43% of third grade students met or exceeded state reading standards, an increase from 27% the previous year. By 2005, 65% of the students met or exceeded state reading standards. During the first year of implementation, 49% of students in grades 4-6 were placed in the Corrective Reading program. By the 2003-2004 school year only 20% of intermediate students were placed in the program.
Students Included:Elementary students, kindergarten students, African American students, Caucasian students, Hispanic students, Asian students, Native Alaskan students, English Language Learner (ELL) students, English as a Second Language (ESL) students
9 of 39
"Closing the achievement gap: The implementation of Direct Instruction in Whiteville City Schools"
Author(s):Frink-Lawrence, V.
Year:2003
Abstract:This study examined the implementation of Direct Instruction (DI) programs in one Whiteville City school, in an attempt to increase student achievement and proficiency, and reduce the achievement gaps among its students. On average, students in the third grade recorded proficiency levels lower than the state average as well as comparable local schools. Achievement gaps had also been identified among African American and Caucasian students in both math and reading. Direct Instruction was implemented in all grades including kindergarten, with students receiving either Language for Learning or Reading Mastery. Changes in student achievement were determined by comparing scores on a state pretest for 3rd grade students over a four year period. Results indicated that following the implementation of DI, student achievement and proficiency increased, and the achievement gaps were reduced. The racial achievement gap decreased in reading from 46% in the fall of 1998 to 18.2% in the fall of 2001. The racial achievement gap for math decreased from 48.2% in the fall of 1998 to 24% in the fall of 2001.
Description of the Study:This study examined the implementation of Direct Instruction (DI) programs in one Whiteville City school, in an attempt to increase student achievement and proficiency, and reduce the achievement gaps among its students. On average, students in the third grade recorded proficiency levels lower than the state average as well as comparable local schools. Achievement gaps had also been identified among African American and Caucasian students in both math and reading. Direct Instruction was implemented in all grades including kindergarten, with students receiving either Language for Learning or Reading Mastery. Changes in student achievement were determined by comparing scores on a state pretest for 3rd grade students over a four year period.
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:Unpublished Masters Thesis (University of North Carolina at Wilmington)
Other Tags:Reading, math, Language for Learning, Reading Mastery
Affiliation:University of North Carolina at Wilmington
Design Type:Longitudinal study, Cohort Control Group Design and Cohort Control Group Historical Comparison Design
Fidelity Data Reported:No
Location/Setting:North Carolina, elementary school
Participants:At-risk students, African American students, Caucasian students, elementary students
Results:Results indicated that following the implementation of DI, student achievement and proficiency increased, and the achievement gaps were reduced. The racial achievement gap decreased in reading from 46% in the fall of 1998 to 18.2% in the fall of 2001. The racial achievement gap for math decreased from 48.2% in the fall of 1998 to 24% in the fall of 2001.
Students Included:At-risk students, African American students, Caucasian students, elementary students
10 of 39
"A study of intensive, systematic Direct Instruction for an autistic child"
Author(s):Rodman, M. L.
Year:2007
Abstract:This five-year study examined the effect of supplemental instruction with Direct Instruction (DI) programs by a parent on the academic achievement of an elementary student with autism spectrum disorder. At the beginning of the study, the subject was an eight year old female who was functioning at a pre-kindergarten level. The student received instruction with a variety of DI programs covering language, reading, and math. Curriculum based tests were administered throughout the course of the study to measure academic achievement. Additional tests were administered to measure social skills and cognitive development. Results indicate the student demonstrated significant gains in all areas of development over the course of the study. By the conclusion of the intervention the student had transitioned into the range of “normal performance” for academic performance and social skills. Additionally, her IQ was measured to be in the near normal range for her age by the conclusion of the study.
Description of the Study:This five-year study examined the effect of supplemental instruction with Direct Instruction (DI) programs by a parent on the academic achievement of an elementary student with autism spectrum disorder. At the beginning of the study, the subject was an eight year old female who was functioning at a pre-kindergarten level. The student received instruction with a variety of DI programs covering language, reading, and math. Curriculum based tests were administered throughout the course of the study to measure academic achievement. Additional tests were administered to measure social skills and cognitive development.
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Capella University: Minneapolis, MN
Other Tags:Parent tutoring, Reading Mastery Rainbow Edition, Corrective Reading, Language for Learning, Language for Thinking, Reasoning and Writing, Cursive Writing, Connecting Math Concepts, Spelling Mastery, Corrective Spelling Through Morphographs, social skills
Affiliation:Capella University
Design Type:Single subject design
Fidelity Data Reported:No
Location/Setting:Student’s home
Participants:
Results:Results indicate the student demonstrated significant gains in all areas of development over the course of the study. By the conclusion of the intervention the student had transitioned into the range of “normal performance” for academic performance and social skills. Additionally, her IQ was measured to be in the near normal range for her age by the conclusion of the study.
Students Included:Students with autism spectrum disorder, elementary student, students with learning disabilities, low-performing students, Caucasian students