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1 of 7
"A comparison of two reading programs on the reading outcomes of first-grade students"
Author(s):Tobin, K. G., & Calhoon, M. B.
Year:2009
Abstract:This study compared the effect of two reading programs on the reading achievement of 107 first grade students at two elementary schools. One school used Horizons Fast Track A-B and the other used a Guided Reading approach. The AIMSweb was administered to all students to monitor phoneme segmentation fluency, nonsense word fluency, and oral reading fluency skills throughout the study. Results indicate that students in both groups demonstrated significant gains in phoneme segmentation fluency, nonsense word fluency, and oral reading fluency. Students in the Guided Reading group significantly outperformed students in the Horizons group on phoneme segmentation fluency. However, students in the Horizons group made significantly greater gains on oral reading fluency.
Description of the Study:This study compared the effect of two reading programs on the reading achievement of 107 first grade students at two elementary schools. One school used Horizons Fast Track A-B and the other used a Guided Reading approach. The AIMSweb was administered to all students to monitor phoneme segmentation fluency, nonsense word fluency, and oral reading fluency skills throughout the study.
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:Journal of Direct Instruction, 9(1), 35-46
Other Tags:Horizons Fast Track A-B, Guided Reading, reading, phoneme segmentation fluency, nonsense word fluency, oral reading fluency, AIMSweb
Affiliation:Pittsfield Public Schools, Georgia State University
Design Type:Pretest posttest control group design
Fidelity Data Reported:Yes
Location/Setting:Northeast, elementary school
Participants:
Results:Results indicate that students in both groups demonstrated significant gains in phoneme segmentation fluency, nonsense word fluency, and oral reading fluency. Students in the Guided Reading group significantly outperformed students in the Horizons group on phoneme segmentation fluency. However, students in the Horizons group made significantly greater gains on oral reading fluency.
Students Included:Elementary students, African American students, Hispanic students, low-SES students, Caucasian students
2 of 7
"Modesto Elementary School Advances from Underperforming to Distinguished with Direct Instruction"
Author(s):SRA/McGraw-Hill
Year:2006
Abstract:This study examined the effect of Direct Instruction reading programs on the reading achievement of kindergarten and elementary students. For the 2000-2001 school year, Reading Mastery (RM) and Corrective Reading (CR) were implemented as supplemental instruction to the core curriculum of Open Court. RM was implemented in grade K-2 classrooms. Struggling readers in grades 3-6 who scored below the 50th percentile on the Stanford 9 received instruction with CR. Horizons, Language for Learning, and Reasoning and Writing were also implemented in the school for students in grades K-6. Prior to implementation, the school was classified by the state of California as underperforming because its Academic Performance Index (API) score was below state standards. Within four years, students demonstrated substantial gains on standardized tests and Eisenhut Elementary school went from being ranked as underperforming to distinguished.
Description of the Study:This study examined the effect of Direct Instruction reading programs on the reading achievement of kindergarten and elementary students. For the 2000-2001 school year, Reading Mastery (RM) and Corrective Reading (CR) were implemented as supplemental instruction to the core curriculum of Open Court. RM was implemented in grade K-2 classrooms. Struggling readers in grades 3-6 who scored below the 50th percentile on the Stanford 9 received instruction with CR. Horizons, Language for Learning, and Reasoning and Writing were also implemented in the school for students in grades K-6. Prior to implementation, the school was classified by the state of California as underperforming because its Academic Performance Index (API) score was below state standards.
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:SRA/McGraw-Hill
Other Tags:Reading Mastery, Corrective Reading, Horizons, Language for Learning, Reasoning and Writing, Academic Performance Index, standardized tests
Affiliation:SRA/McGraw-Hill
Design Type:Cohort control group with historical comparison design
Fidelity Data Reported:No
Location/Setting:Elementary school, Stanislaus, California, West
Participants:
Results:Within four years, students demonstrated substantial gains on standardized tests and Eisenhut Elementary school went from being ranked as underperforming to distinguished.
Students Included:Kindergarten students, elementary students, low-performing students, remedial students, low-SES students, Caucasian students, Hispanic students, African American students, English Language Learner students, English as a Second Language students
3 of 7
"A pilot study of the effect of Direct Instruction programming on the academic performance of students with intractable epilepsy"
Author(s):Humphries, T., Neufeld, M., Johnson, C., Enges, K., & McKay, R.
Year:2005
Abstract:This study examined the effect of Direct Instruction (DI) programs on the academic achievement of 55 students with intractable epilepsy and learning difficulties. The programs implemented included Reading Mastery, Corrective Reading, Horizons, Reasoning and Writing, Connecting Math Concepts, Language for Learning, and Spelling Mastery. Student ages ranged from 6.5 to 14.1 years and student mean IQ was 71.25. Students received instruction in groups of no more than 8, 3 to 4.5 times per week for up to 16 weeks. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale of Children was administered for pretest measures and the Woodcock Johnson Test of Achievement was administered for pre- and posttest measures. Pretest results indicated that students were below test means in reading and mathematics, particularly calculation. Posttest results indicated significant improvement in all academic areas except word identification in reading. Additionally, gains in passage comprehension and mathematic problem solving were associated with IQ level, but no academic gains were associated with seizure variables or the number of days of exposure to DI.
Description of the Study:This study examined the effect of Direct Instruction (DI) programs on the academic achievement of 55 students with intractable epilepsy and learning difficulties. The programs implemented included Reading Mastery, Corrective Reading, Horizons, Reasoning and Writing, Connecting Math Concepts, Language for Learning, and Spelling Mastery. Student ages ranged from 6.5 to 14.1 years and student mean IQ was 71.25. Students received instruction in groups of no more than 8, 3 to 4.5 times per week for up to 16 weeks. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale of Children was administered for pretest measures and the Woodcock Johnson Test of Achievement was administered for pre- and posttest measures.
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:Epilepsy & Behavior, 6(3), 405-412
Other Tags:Reading Mastery, Corrective Reading, Horizons, Reasoning and Writing, Connecting Math Concepts, Language for Learning, and Spelling Mastery, Woodcock Johnson Tests of Achievement-Revised, Wechsler Intelligence Scale of Children, reading, math, spelling, writing
Affiliation:Child Development Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada; Toronto District School Board; Toronto Catholic District School Board
Design Type:Pretest posttest, gain scores
Fidelity Data Reported:No
Location/Setting:Hospital based classroom, Child Development Centre, Hospital of Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
Participants:Elementary students, secondary students, students with intractable epilepsy, students with learning disabilities, at-risk students, Caucasian students, Asian students, Middle Eastern students, African American students, students with low IQs
Results:Pretest results indicated that students were below test means in reading and mathematics, particularly calculation. Posttest results indicated significant improvement in all academic areas except word identification in reading. Additionally, gains in passage comprehension and mathematic problem solving were associated with IQ level, but no academic gains were associated with seizure variables or the number of days of exposure to DI.
Students Included:Elementary students, secondary students, students with intractable epilepsy, students with learning disabilities, at-risk students, Caucasian students, Asian students, Middle Eastern students, African American students, students with low IQs
4 of 7
"A comparison of Reading Mastery Fast Cycle and Horizons Fast Track A–B on the reading achievement of students with mild disabilities"
Author(s):Cooke, N. L., Gibbs, S. L., Campbell, M. L., & Shalvis, S. L.
Year:2004
Abstract:This study examined the effect of two Direct Instruction programs, Reading Mastery Fast Cycle and Horizons Fast Track A-B, on the reading achievement of students with mild disabilities. Horizons is a modified version of Reading Mastery and the article lists 17 common features of the development and construction of the programs and two differences. 30 students and three teachers in three elementary schools participated in the study. Students ranged in grade level from the second to the fourth grade. Students were administered the Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery-Revised and the North Carolina Literacy Assessment at the beginning and end of the school year for pretest and posttest measures. Results indicated both groups made significant gains in word attack, comprehension, letter and word identification, and phonemic awareness skills. These gains over time were significantly greater than national norms. Students in the Reading Mastery group recorded slightly higher scores on the measures of decoding, but these differences were not statistically significant.
Description of the Study:This study examined the effect of two Direct Instruction programs, Reading Mastery Fast Cycle and Horizons Fast Track A-B, on the reading achievement of students with mild disabilities. Horizons is a modified version of Reading Mastery and the article lists 17 common features of the development and construction of the programs and two differences. 30 students and three teachers in three elementary schools participated in the study. Students ranged in grade level from the second to the fourth grade. Students were administered the Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery-Revised and the North Carolina Literacy Assessment at the beginning and end of the school year for pretest and posttest measures.
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:Journal of Direct Instruction, 4(2), 139–151
Other Tags:Reading Mastery Fast Cycle, Horizons¸ students with learning disabilities, word attack, comprehension, letter identification, word identification, phonemic awareness skills, decoding, Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery-Revised, North Carolina Literacy Assessment
Affiliation:University of North Carolina at Charlotte
Design Type:Pretest-posttest control group design
Fidelity Data Reported:Yes
Location/Setting:Elementary school, suburban school district, Southeastern United States
Participants:Students with mild disabilities, students with learning disabilities, elementary school children, students with behavioral-emotional disabilities, students with severe attention deficit disorder
Results:Results indicated both groups made significant gains in word attack, comprehension, letter and word identification, and phonemic awareness skills. These gains over time were significantly greater than national norms. Students in the Reading Mastery group recorded slightly higher scores on the measures of decoding, but these differences were not statistically significant.
Students Included:Students with mild disabilities, students with learning disabilities, elementary school children, students with behavioral-emotional disabilities, students with severe attention deficit disorder
5 of 7
"Reading Mastery and Learning Disabled Students: A Comment on the What Works Clearinghouse Review"
Author(s):Stockard, J., & Wood, T. W.
Year:2012
Abstract:In response to a recent report published by the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) on the effectiveness of the Direct Instruction program Reading Mastery with students with learning disabilities, Stockard and Wood analyzed the report and highlighted the serious errors in the WWC’s conclusions. The WWC examined two studies and concluded that Reading Mastery had “no discernible effects on reading comprehension and potentially negative effects on alphabetics, reading fluency, and writing.” Their conclusion is in stark contrast to dozens of studies of Reading Mastery and other elements of the Direct Instruction corpus of material, which consistently found strong positive effects of the programs on academic achievement for students of all ability levels. Stockard and Wood thoroughly examined the WWC report and the research articles used to develop its findings and found very serious problems with its conclusions. These problems are documented and explained in detail. This report also discusses the WWC procedures for their reports and the issues that result from them. Additionally an annotated list of relevant studies not reviewed by the WWC is included to demonstrate the weakness of the WWC conclusions and provide further evidence on the effectiveness of Direct Instruction and Reading Mastery.
Description of the Study:
Article Type:Descriptive study
Journal/Source:National Institute for Direct Instruction Technical Report 2012-1
Other Tags:What Works Clearinghouse, Direct Instruction, Reading Mastery, students with learning disabilities, Reading Mastery Fast Cycle, Horizons Fast Track a-B, reading comprehension, alphabetics, reading fluency, writing
Affiliation:
Design Type:N/A
Fidelity Data Reported:N/A
Location/Setting:N/A
Participants:
Results:
Students Included:Students with learning disabilities
6 of 7
"The effect of Direct Instruction and prior phonological awareness training on the development of reading skills in first grade"
Author(s):Tobin, K. G.
Year:2000
Abstract:This study compared the effect of two reading programs on the reading achievement of first grade students in four classrooms. Two classrooms received instruction with Horizons and two classrooms received instruction with Silver, Burdet, & Ginn (SBG) curriculum. Additionally, one classroom from each curriculum group received phonemic awareness training with the Telian curriculum for several months during kindergarten. Students in each group were matched based on their performance on the Concepts in Print test. A battery of tests was administered throughout the study to measure students’ achievement. Results indicated that students in the Horizons group demonstrated significantly larger gains in phonological segmentation fluency, nonsense word fluency, oral reading fluency, accuracy, and standardized letter/word identification than students in the SBG group. Horizons students who received prior instruction with phonemic awareness demonstrated the largest gains in the fall. However, by the conclusions of the study (June), the scores of Horizons students who did not receive prior phonemic awareness instruction were indistinguishable from other Horizons students’ on most measures.
Description of the Study:This study compared the effect of two reading programs on the reading achievement of first grade students in four classrooms. Two classrooms received instruction with Horizons and two classrooms received instruction with Silver, Burdet, & Ginn (SBG) curriculum. Additionally, one classroom from each curriculum group received phonemic awareness training with the Telian curriculum for several months during kindergarten. Students in each group were matched based on their performance on the Concepts in Print test. A battery of tests was administered throughout the study to measure students’ achievement.
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:Unpublished manuscript
Other Tags:Horizons, Silver, Burdet, & Ginn, phonemic awareness, phonological segmentation fluency, nonsense word fluency, oral reading fluency, accuracy, standardized letter/word identification, Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills, Test of Oral Reading Fluency, Woodcock Diagnostic Reading Test, Concepts in Print test
Affiliation:Pittsfield Public Schools
Design Type:Pretest posttest control group design with matched comparisons
Fidelity Data Reported:No
Location/Setting:Elementary school
Participants:
Results:Results indicated that students in the Horizons group demonstrated significantly larger gains in phonological segmentation fluency, nonsense word fluency, oral reading fluency, accuracy, and standardized letter/word identification than students in the SBG group. Horizons students who received prior instruction with phonemic awareness demonstrated the largest gains in the fall. However, by the conclusions of the study (June), the scores of Horizons students who did not receive prior phonemic awareness instruction were indistinguishable from other Horizons students’ on most measures.
Students Included:Elementary students
7 of 7
"The Effectiveness of Direct Instruction Curricula: A Meta-Analysis of a Half Century of Research  "
Author(s):Stockard, J., Wood, T., Coughlin, C., Rasplica Khoury, C.  
Year:2018  
Abstract:This updated meta-analysis synthesized the results of 328 studies on the effectiveness of Direct Instruction, spanning 50 years (1966-2016). Results were consistent with conclusions of previous meta-analyses and reviews of the literature regarding DI (e.g., Adams & Engelmann, 1996, White, 1988) providing overwhelming support that Direct Instruction continues to be effective in improving skills in multiple academic areas, including reading, math, language, and spelling. Other outcomes were also examined, including affective measures, ability measures, and teacher and parent perceptions. Moderation analyses indicated that characteristics of the publications, methodology, and sample were not systematically related to effect estimates. Effects showed little decline during maintenance, and effects for academic subjects were greater when students had more exposure to the programs. Effect size estimates were educationally significant, moderate to large when using traditional psychological and educational benchmarks, and similar in magnitude to effect sizes that reflect performance gaps between more and less advantaged students.  
Description of the Study:
Article Type:Program Effectiveness  
Journal/Source:Review of Educational Research  
Other Tags:Elementary Reading, Elementary Mathematics, Elementary Multiple Subjects, Secondary Reading, Secondary Mathematics, Secondary Multiple Subjects, Writing, Language, Spelling, Affective Outcomes, Teacher/Parent Perceptions, DISTAR, Reading Mastery, Corrective Reading, Horizons, Connecting Math Concepts, Language for Learning, Expressive Writing, Reasoning and Writing, Spelling Mastery, Corrective Mathematics  
Affiliation:
Design Type:Meta-analysis  
Fidelity Data Reported:Yes  
Location/Setting:Urban, Suburban, Rural, United States, International
Participants:
Results:
Students Included:Elementary Students, Secondary Students, Kindergarten Students, Pre-School Students, General Education Students, Special Education Students, English Language Learners, At-Risk Students, Minority Students