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1 of 11
"Direct Instruction In An Urban School System"
Author(s):Di Obilda, Nicholas, Brent, George
Year:1986
Abstract:This study examined the effect of implementing the Direct Instruction program, Reading Mastery, in an urban school system. In each school, two teachers were randomly assigned to teach either Reading Mastery or the previously used basal reading program. Each class consisted of 25 second grade students who were randomly assigned to the classrooms. At the conclusion of grade 2, the students were administered the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills, Form S, Level C. Results indicated that the only significant difference between the two groups was on the vocabulary subtest scores with students in the Reading Mastery group scoring significantly higher than students in the control group. On average, the Reading Mastery group scored at or above the national average on each measurement of the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills while the control group scored below the national average. Additionally, the authors concluded that Reading Mastery was clearly superior in developing vocabulary skills.
Description of the Study:This study examined the effect of implementing the Direct Instruction program, Reading Mastery, in an urban school system. In each school, two teachers were randomly assigned to teach either Reading Mastery or the previously used basal reading program. Each class consisted of 25 second grade students who were randomly assigned to the classrooms. At the conclusion of grade 2, the students were administered the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills, Form S, Level C.
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:The Reading Instruction Journal, 29, pp. 2-5
Other Tags:Direct Instruction, Reading Mastery, DISTAR Language, Mathematics Modules, Corrective Mathematics, Corrective Reading, Expressive Writing, Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills, Form S, Level C, Vocabulary, Sentence Comprehension, Passage Comprehension, Total Reading
Affiliation:Glassboro State College
Design Type:Posttest only control group design with random assignment
Fidelity Data Reported:Yes
Location/Setting:Urban school, southern New Jersey
Participants:
Results:Results indicated that the only significant difference between the two groups was on the vocabulary subtest scores with students in the Reading Mastery group scoring significantly higher than students in the control group. On average, the Reading Mastery group scored at or above the national average on each measurement of the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills while the control group scored below the national average. Additionally, the authors concluded that Reading Mastery was clearly superior in developing vocabulary skills.
Students Included:African American students, Hispanic students, second grade students, elementary school students
2 of 11
"The differential effects of Direct Instruction and procedural facilitators on the writing outcomes of fifth-grade students with behavior disorders"
Author(s):Patterson, D., Houchins, D. E., Jolivette, K., Heflin, J., & Fredrick, L.
Year:2011
Abstract:This study examined the effect of the Direct Instruction program Expressive Writing (EW) and the use of a procedural facilitator as a form of strategy guide on the writing performance of two 5th grade students with emotional and behavior disorders. The effects of EW and EW plus a procedural facilitator were assessed by alternating their use on successive days. The Test of Written Language-3 was administered for pre- and posttest measures and writing samples were taken on a daily basis. The effects of EW and EW plus a procedural facilitator were averaged after it was determined that the treatments did not produce a clear fractionation between the data paths. Results indicated that students demonstrated an overall pattern of positive gains in writing quality and fluency.
Description of the Study:This study examined the effect of the Direct Instruction program Expressive Writing (EW) and the use of a procedural facilitator as a form of strategy guide on the writing performance of two 5th grade students with emotional and behavior disorders. The effects of EW and EW plus a procedural facilitator were assessed by alternating their use on successive days. The Test of Written Language-3 was administered for pre- and posttest measures and writing samples were taken on a daily basis.
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:Journal of Direct Instruction, 11, 1-14
Other Tags:Expressive Writing, Test of Written Language-3, narrative writing, procedural facilitators, IDEA Think Sheet
Affiliation:Georgia State University
Design Type:Pretest posttest gain scores
Fidelity Data Reported:Yes
Location/Setting:Elementary school, public school, special education classroom, suburban area, southeast
Participants:
Results:The effects of EW and EW plus a procedural facilitator were averaged after it was determined that the treatments did not produce a clear fractionation between the data paths. Results indicated that students demonstrated an overall pattern of positive gains in writing quality and fluency.
Students Included:Elementary students, students with behavior disorders, students with emotional disorders, Caucasian students
3 of 11
"Students gains in a privately managed network of charter schools using Direct Instruction"
Author(s):Cross, R. W., Rebarber, T., & Wilson, S. F.
Year:2002
Abstract:This study examined the effect of Direct Instruction programs on the academic achievement of students in Advantage Schools, a privately managed network of charter schools. Direct Instruction programs were used in all schools. Multiple Direct Instruction programs were implemented for reading, writing, and mathematics instruction. Students were placed in the different programs based on their skill level. Data came from the 1999-2000 school year. Students were tested twice a year, once in the fall and once in the spring with the mathematics subtest of the Stanford Achievement Test-Ninth Edition (SAT-9). On average, students in the Advantage Schools learned at an accelerated rate in comparison to national norms. Across all grades the average student moved from the 25th percentile at the beginning of the year to the 29th percentile in the spring. The greatest gains were seen among kindergarten students, where the average student moved from the 34th to 46th percentile. All changes, except for those in grades one and seven, were statistically significant.
Description of the Study:This study examined the effect of Direct Instruction programs on the academic achievement of students in Advantage Schools, a privately managed network of charter schools. Direct Instruction programs were used in all schools. Multiple Direct Instruction programs were implemented for reading, writing, and mathematics instruction. Data came from the 1999-2000 school year. Students were tested twice a year, once in the fall and once in the spring with the mathematics subtest of the Stanford Achievement Test-Ninth Edition (SAT-9).
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:Journal of Direct Instruction, 2(1), 3-21
Other Tags:Advantage School, charter school, Language for Learning, DISTAR Language, Reading Mastery, DISTAR Arithmetic, Connecting Math Concepts, Reasoning and Writing, Spelling Mastery, Expressive Writing, implementation, Stanford Achievement Test Ninth Edition
Affiliation:Advantage Schools
Design Type:Pretest-Posttest Norm Comparison Design
Fidelity Data Reported:Yes
Location/Setting:Charter school, northeast, mid-west, south, west
Participants:
Results:On average, students in the Advantage Schools learned at an accelerated rate in comparison to national norms. Across all grades the average student moved from the 25th percentile at the beginning of the year to the 29th percentile in the spring. The greatest gains were seen among kindergarten students, where the average student moved from the 34th to 46th percentile. All changes, except for those in grades one and seven, were statistically significant.
Students Included:Kindergarten students, elementary school students, middle school students
4 of 11
"South Tahoe Middle School, South Lake Tahoe, California"
Author(s):SRA/McGraw-Hill
Year:2003
Abstract:This study examined the effect of Direct Instruction (DI) programs on the academic achievement of middle school students in one school. In response to students reading below grade level, Corrective Reading (CR) was implemented at the start of the 2000-2001 school year in grade six classrooms. CR was expanded to seventh and eighth grade classrooms the following year for students who scored below the 50th percentile on the Stanford Achievement Test (SAT-9). Students in grade six also began receiving instruction with Expressive Writing and Spelling Through Morphographs (STM) that year. Student achievement was measured annually with the SAT-9 and the school’s Academic Performance Index (API), which consists of multiple state assessments. Results from the SAT-9 indicate that prior to beginning instruction with CR, students in grade five tested at the 47th percentile. After one year with CR their scores increased to the 58th percentile. Students who were instructed with STM gained an average of 13 percentage points. Results indicated that after one year with CR, students in all grades demonstrated a gain from the 50th percentile to the 60th percentile on the SAT-9 in reading, spelling, and language arts. Following the implementation of DI, the school’s API increased from 664 (pre-DI) to 701 in 2001.
Description of the Study:This study examined the effect of Direct Instruction (DI) programs on the academic achievement of middle school students in one school. In response to students reading below grade level, Corrective Reading (CR) was implemented at the start of the 2000-2001 school year in grade six classrooms. CR was expanded to seventh and eighth grade classrooms the following year for students who scored below the 50th percentile on the Stanford Achievement Test (SAT-9). Students in grade six also began receiving instruction with Expressive Writing and Spelling Through Morphographs (STM) that year. Student achievement was measured annually with the SAT-9 and the school’s Academic Performance Index (API), which consists of multiple state assessments.
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:In Results with Corrective Reading, pp. 20-21
Other Tags:Corrective Reading, reading comprehension, decoding, Stanford Achievement Test, Expressive Writing and Spelling Through Morphographs, Academic Performance Index, language arts
Affiliation:SRA/McGraw-Hill
Design Type:Pretest posttest gain scores, cohort control historical comparison design
Fidelity Data Reported:No
Location/Setting:Middle school, South Lake Tahoe, California, West
Participants:
Results:Results from the SAT-9 indicate that prior to beginning instruction with CR, students in grade five tested at the 47th percentile. After one year with CR their scores increased to the 58th percentile. Students who were instructed with STM gained an average of 13 percentage points. Results indicated that after one year with CR, students in all grades demonstrated a gain from the 50th percentile to the 60th percentile on the SAT-9 in reading, spelling, and language arts. Following the implementation of DI, the school’s API increased from 664 (pre-DI) to 701 in 2001.
Students Included:Secondary students, middle school students, remedial students, low-performing students
5 of 11
"Direct Instruction programs produce significant gains with at-risk middle school students"
Author(s):Sommers, J.
Year:1991
Abstract:This study examined the effect of Direct Instruction reading, spelling, and math programs on the academic achievement of at-risk middle school students in one school from 1985 to 1991. The programs implemented included Corrective Reading, Corrective Mathematics, Expressive Writing, Corrective Spelling Through Morphographs, and Spelling Mastery. The Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, the Key Math Diagnostic Test, and curriculum based measures were administered to measure student achievement. Results indicated that the Direct Instruction programs for reading, math, and spelling were very successful for at-risk and general education students. Students often demonstrated gains of grade equivalency exceeding the time of instruction with some students recording gains of one to five years over the course of one school year.
Description of the Study:This study examined the effect of Direct Instruction reading, spelling, and math programs on the academic achievement of at-risk middle school students in one school from 1985 to 1991. The programs implemented included Corrective Reading, Corrective Mathematics, Expressive Writing, Corrective Spelling Through Morphographs, and Spelling Mastery. The Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, the Key Math Diagnostic Test, and curriculum based measures were administered to measure student achievement.
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:Direct Instruction News, 11(1), 7-14
Other Tags:Reading, math, language, basic skills, Corrective Reading, Corrective Mathematics, Expressive Writing, Corrective Spelling Through Morphographs, Spelling Mastery, comprehension, Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, Key Math Diagnostic Test
Affiliation:Big Piney Middle School
Design Type:Pretest posttest gain scores
Fidelity Data Reported:No
Location/Setting:Middle school, Big Piney, Wyoming, rural area
Participants:
Results:Results indicated that the Direct Instruction programs for reading, math, and spelling were very successful for at-risk and general education students. Students often demonstrated gains of grade equivalency exceeding the time of instruction with some students recording gains of one to five years over the course of one school year.
Students Included:Middle school students, secondary students, at-risk students, remedial students, general education students
6 of 11
"DI gains in Big Piney middle school basic skills class"
Author(s):Sommers, J.
Year:1988
Abstract:This study examined the effect of Direct Instruction programs on the basic skills of at-risk middle school students. Students received instruction with Corrective Reading, Corrective Mathematics, Expressive Writing, and Corrective Spelling Through Morphographs. Students were administered the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, the Stanford Mathematics Test, the Test of Written Language, and the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement to measure their achievement. Results indicate that over 70% of the students gained 12 months in an 8 month period. Some of the students gained over two years during the same amount of time. Gains during the second year of the program appear much greater than those during the first year of the program.
Description of the Study:This study examined the effect of Direct Instruction programs on the basic skills of at-risk middle school students. Students received instruction with Corrective Reading, Corrective Mathematics, Expressive Writing, and Corrective Spelling Through Morphographs. Students were administered the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, the Stanford Mathematics Test, the Test of Written Language, and the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement to measure their achievement.
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:DI News, 7(2), 4
Other Tags:Corrective Reading, decoding, Corrective Mathematics, Expressive Writing, Corrective Spelling Through Morphographs, basic skills, Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, Stanford Mathematics Test, Test of Written Language, Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement
Affiliation:N/A
Design Type:Pretest posttest gain scores
Fidelity Data Reported:No
Location/Setting:Big Piney, Wyoming, middle school
Participants:
Results:Results indicate that over 70% of the students gained 12 months in an 8 month period. Some of the students gained over two years during the same amount of time. Gains during the second year of the program appear much greater than those during the first year of the program.
Students Included:Secondary students, middle school students, remedial students, at-risk students
7 of 11
"Seven-Year Overview of Direct Instruction Programs Used In Basic Skills Classes at Big Piney Middle School"
Author(s):Sommers, Jonita
Year:1995
Abstract:This article examines the introduction of Direct Instruction curriculum into Big Piney Middle School’s basic skills program. Results indicated that students in the basic skills program learned and retained more information in each curriculum program than the previous curriculum. The article states that the learning of students who have fallen behind can be accelerated with Direct Instruction curriculum.
Description of the Study:
Article Type:Efficacy Study
Journal/Source:Effective School Practices, Fall, 1995
Other Tags:Basic Skills Program, Direct Instruction, Corrective Reading, Corrective Mathematics, Expressive Writing, Corrective Spelling Through Morphographs, Gates MacGinitie Reading Test, Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement, Key Math Diagnostic Test, Test of Written Language
Affiliation:
Design Type:Longitudinal Study
Fidelity Data Reported:No
Location/Setting:Big Piney Middle School, Big Piney, Wyoming
Participants:
Results:
Students Included:Middle School students
8 of 11
"Abraham Lincoln middle School: Gainesville, Florida"
Author(s):SRA/McGraw-Hill
Year:2003
Abstract:To enhance student academic achievement, Direct Instruction programs were implemented in the Abraham Lincoln Middle School for the 1999-2000 school year. This study briefly reports the results of students’ reading achievement from 1999 to 2002. Prior to the implementation of Corrective Reading (1999-2000), Abraham Lincoln Middle School was given a grade of “C” by the state of Florida. This score was based on the school’s ability to increase reading proficiency scores among the lowest scoring readers on the Florida Comprehensive Test (FCAT). One year after the implementation of Corrective Reading, the school was assessed the grade of “A” from the state of Florida. Results from the 2002 Grade 8 FCAT indicated that 67% of all students made normal or better gains in reading, and 63% of students in the lowest quartile made above normal or better gains. In 2002 the school was ranked fourth out of the eight middle schools in the county for scores on the FCAT. Results from the Stanford Achievement Test indicated that 58% of the Direct Instruction students improved at a faster rate than expected, in comparison to 46% of students in an alternative instructional model.
Description of the Study:To enhance student academic achievement, Direct Instruction programs were implemented in the Abraham Lincoln Middle School for the 1999-2000 school year. This study briefly reports the results of students’ reading achievement from 1999 to 2002. Prior to the implementation of Corrective Reading (1999-2000), Abraham Lincoln Middle School was given a grade of “C” by the state of Florida. This score was based on the school’s ability to increase reading proficiency scores among the lowest scoring readers on the Florida Comprehensive Test (FCAT).
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:In Results with Corrective Reading (2-3), SRA/McGraw Hill
Other Tags:Corrective Reading, Florida Comprehensive Test (FCAT), Expressive Writing, Reading and Writing, decoding, comprehension, Stanford Achievement Test (SAT), teacher satisfaction
Affiliation:SRA/McGraw-Hill
Design Type:Cohort Control Group Design and Pretest Posttest Gain Score Design
Fidelity Data Reported:No
Location/Setting:Middle school, Gainesville, Florida
Participants:Secondary students, low-SES students
Results:One year after the implementation of Corrective Reading, the school was assessed the grade of “A” from the state of Florida. Results from the 2002 Grade 8 FCAT indicated that 67% of all students made normal or better gains in reading, and 63% of students in the lowest quartile made above normal or better gains. In 2002 the school was ranked fourth out of the eight middle schools in the county for scores on the FCAT. Results from the Stanford Achievement Test indicated that 58% of the Direct Instruction students improved at a faster rate than expected, in comparison to 46% of students in an alternative instructional model.
Students Included:Secondary students, low-SES students
9 of 11
"Using Direct Instruction programs to teach comprehension and language skills to deaf and hard-of-hearing students: A 6-year study"
Author(s):Kraemer, J., Kramer, S., Koch, H., Madigan, K., & Steely, D.
Year:2001
Abstract:This study examined the effective of Direct Instruction (DI) programs on the acquisition of comprehension and language skills by deaf and hard-of-hearing high school students. The DI programs implemented included Corrective Reading, Spelling Through Morphographs, Spelling Mastery, and Expressive Writing. Results indicated that on average, students scored above the national average for deaf students in the areas of reading comprehension, spelling, and total language. Students scored 2.8 years, 2.2 years, and 4.4 years above the national average respectively. When compared to similar students, DI students demonstrated larger gain scores between the 8th and 12th grades. Additionally, DI students from well implemented and trained classrooms demonstrated greater achievement than DI students from classrooms with noted issues with implementation fidelity.
Description of the Study:This study examined the effective of Direct Instruction (DI) programs on the acquisition of comprehension and language skills by deaf and hard-of-hearing high school students. The DI programs implemented included Corrective Reading, Spelling Through Morphographs, Spelling Mastery, and Expressive Writing.
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:Direct Instruction News, 1(2), 23-31
Other Tags:Corrective Reading, Spelling Through Morphographs, Spelling Mastery, Expressive Writing, reading, fluency, text structure, reading comprehension, spelling, writing, vocabulary, total language, Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills, implementation fidelity
Affiliation:University H.S. D/HH, Irvine, CA; National Council on Teacher Quality; Oregon Center for Applied Science
Design Type:Pretest posttest norm comparison design
Fidelity Data Reported:Yes
Location/Setting:Irvine, California, high school, public school
Participants:Secondary students, hard-of-hearing students, deaf students, Caucasian students, Hispanic students, Asian students, low-SES students
Results:Results indicated that on average, students scored above the national average for deaf students in the areas of reading comprehension, spelling, and total language. Students scored 2.8 years, 2.2 years, and 4.4 years above the national average respectively. When compared to similar students, DI students demonstrated larger gain scores between the 8th and 12th grades. Additionally, DI students from well implemented and trained classrooms demonstrated greater achievement than DI students from classrooms with noted issues with implementation fidelity.
Students Included:Secondary students, hard-of-hearing students, deaf students, Caucasian students, Hispanic students, Asian students, low-SES students
10 of 11
"The Effects of Direct Instruction in Writing on English Speakers and English Language Learners with Disabilities"
Author(s):Viel-Ruma, K. A.
Year:2008
Abstract:This study examined the effect of the Direct Instruction program, Expressive Writing, on the writing skills of six students with learning disabilities. Students were divided into two groups, one for native English speaking students and one for English Language Learners. Students were administered the Test of Written Language (TOWL) and curriculum based measures for pre- and posttest measures. Results indicated that after half of the total lessons were presented, students in both groups demonstrated gains in the number of correct word sequences and the volume of words in writing samples. Additionally, students in both groups recorded decreases in the number of errors. Patterns of improvement were similar for students in both groups.
Description of the Study:This study examined the effect of the Direct Instruction program, Expressive Writing, on the writing skills of six students with learning disabilities. Students were divided into two groups, one for native English speaking students and one for English Language Learners. Students were administered the Test of Written Language (TOWL) and curriculum based measures for pre- and posttest measures.
Article Type:Efficacy study
Journal/Source:Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation: Georgia State University
Other Tags:Expressive Writing, writing fluency, writing quality, Test of Written Language (TOWL), curriculum based measures
Affiliation:Georgia State University
Design Type:Pretest posttest gain scores
Fidelity Data Reported:Yes
Location/Setting:High school, public school, special education resource classroom
Participants:
Results:Results indicated that after half of the total lessons were presented, students in both groups demonstrated gains in the number of correct word sequences and the volume of words in writing samples. Additionally, students in both groups recorded decreases in the number of errors. Patterns of improvement were similar for students in both groups.
Students Included:Secondary students, high school students, students with learning disabilities, special education students, English Language Learners (ELL), English as a Second Language students, Caucasian students, African American students, Hispanic students